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Whales, dolphins, and porpoises

A striped dolphin surfacing in the Mediterranean Sea between France and Corsica.
Classification after Fordyce & Barnes 1994.
Containing group: Eutheria


Adachi, J. and M. Hasegawa. 1995. Phylogeny of whales - dependence of the inference on species sampling. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12:177-179.

Arnason, U. and A. Gullberg. 1994. Relationship of baleen whales established by cytochrome-b gene sequence comparison. Nature 367:726-728.

Arnason, U. and A. Gullberg. 1996. Cytochrome b nucleotide sequences and the identification of five primary lineages of extant cetaceans. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:407-417.

Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, S. Gretarsdottir, B. Ursing, and A. Janke. 2000. The mitochondrial genome of the sperm whale and a new molecular reference for estimating eutherian divergence dates. Journal of Molecular Evolution 50:569-578.

Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, and B. Widegren. 1991. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus. Journal of Molecular Evolution 33:556- 568.

Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, and B. Widegren. 1993. Cetacean mitochondrial-DNA control region - sequences of all extant baleen whales and 2 sperm whale species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10:960-970.

Bajpai, S. and P. D. Gingerich. 1998. A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 95:15464-15468.

Ballance, L. T. and R. L. Pitman. 1998. Cetaceans of the western tropical Indian Ocean: Distribution, relative abundance, and comparisons with cetacean communities of two other tropical ecosystems. Marine Mammal Science 14:429-459.

Berta, A. 1994. What is a whale? Science 263:180-181.

Berta, A. and J. L. Sumich. 1999. Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press, New York.

Buntjer, J. B., I. A. Hoff, and J. A. Lenstra. 1997. Artiodactyl interspersed DNA repeats in cetacean genomes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 45:66-69.

Cerchio, S. and P. Tucker. 1998. Influence of alignment on the mtDNA phylogeny of Cetacea: Questionable support for a Mysticeti/Physeteroidea clade. Systematic Biology 47:336-344.

Douzery, E. 1993. Evolutionary relationships among Cetacea based on the sequence of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene: possible paraphyly of toothed-whales (odontocetes) and long separate evolution of sperm whales (Physeteridae). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Vie 316:1511-1518.

Fordyce, R. E. 1980. Whale evolution and Oligocene southern-ocean environments. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 31:319-336.

Fordyce, R. E. and L. G. Barnes. 1994. The evolutionary history of whales and dolphins. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 22:419-455.

Gingerich, P. D., N. A. Wells, D. E. Russell, and S. M. I. Shah. 1983. Origin of whales in epicontinental remnant seas - new evidence from the Early Eocene of Pakistan. Science 220:403-406.

Gingerich, P. D., S. M. Raza, M. Arif, M. Anwar, and X. Zhou. 1994. New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming. Nature 368:844-847.

Gingerich, P. D., B. H. Smith, and E. L. Simons. 1990. Hind limbs of Eocene Basilosaurus: evidence of feet in whales. Science 249:154-157.

Gingerich, P. D. and M. D. Uhen. 1998. Likelihood estimation of the time of origin of Cetacea and the time of divergence of Cetacea and Artiodactyla. Palaeontologica Electronica 1(2): http://www-odp.tamu.edu/paleo/1998 2/ging uhen/issue2.htm.

Gingerich, P. D., N. A. Wells, D. E. Russell, and S. M. I. Shah. 1983. Origin of whales in epicontinental remnant seas: new evidence from the early Eocene of Pakistan. Science 220:403-406.

Gretarsdottir, S. and U. Arnason. 1992. Evolution of the common cetacean highly repetitive DNA component and the systematic position of Orcaella brevirostris. Journal of Molecular Evolution 34:201-208.

Hasegawa, M.,J. Adachi, and M. C. Milinkovitch. 1997. Novel phylogeny of whales supported by total molecular evidence. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44:S117-S120.

Jefferson, T. A., S. Leatherwood, and M. A. Webber. 1993. Marine Mammals of the World. FAO and UNEP.

Klinowska, M. 1991. Dolphins, Porpoises and Whales of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN [International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources], Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mann, J., R. C. Connor, P. L. Tyack, and H. Whitehead (eds.) 2000. Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Messenger, S. L. and J. A. McGuire. 1998. Morphology, molecules, and the phylogenetics of cetaceans. Systematic Biology 47:90-124.

Milinkovitch, M. C. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of cetaceans prompts revision of morphological transformations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:328-334.

Milinkovitch, M. C., R. G. LeDuc, J. Adachi, F. Farnir, M. Georges, and M. Hasegawa. 1996. Effects of character weighting and species sampling on phylogeny reconstruction: A case study based on DNA sequence data in cetaceans. Genetics 144:1817-1833

Milinkovitch, M. C., A. Meyer, and J. R. Powell. 1994. Phylogeny of all major groups of cetaceans based on DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11:939-948.

Milinkovitch, M. C., G. Ortí, and A. Meyer. 1993. Revised phylogeny of whales suggested by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Nature 361:346-348.

Milinkovitch, M. C., M. C., G. Ortí, and A. Meyer. 1995. Novel phylogeny of whales revisted but not revised. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12:518-520.

Nowak, R. M. 1999. Order Cetacea. Pages 896-981 in: Walker's Mammals of the World. Sixth Edition. Volume II. (R. M. Nowak). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Ohland, D. P., E. H. Harley, and P. B. Best. 1995. Systematics of cetaceans using restriction site mapping of mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4:10-19.

O'Leary, M. A. and M. D. Uhen. 1999. The time of origin of whales and the role of behavioral changes in the terrestrial-aquatic transition. Paleobiology 25:534-556.

Perrin, W. F., B. Wursig, and J. G. M. Thewissen, eds. 2002. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.

Sedmera, D., I. Misek, and M. Klima. 1997. On the development of cetacean extremities. 1. Hind limb rudimentation in the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). European Journal of Morphology 35:25-30.

Smith, M. R., M. S. Shivji, V. G. Waddell, and M. J. Stanhope. 1996. Phylogenetic evidence from the IRBP gene for the paraphyly of toothed whales, with mixed support for cetacea as a suborder of artiodactyla. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:918-922.

Spoor, F., S. Bajpai, S. T. Hussain, K. Kumar, and J. G. M. Thewissen. 2002. Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature 417:163-166.

Thewissen, J. G. M. 1994. Phylogenetic aspects of cetacean origins: a morphological perspective. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 2:157-184.

Thewissen, J. G. M. (ed.) 1998. The Emergence of Whales: Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea. Plenum Publishing Company, New York.

Thewissen, J. G. M. and S. T. Hussain. 1993. Origin of underwater hearing in whales. Nature 361:444-445.

Thewissen, J. G. M., S. T. Hussain, and M. Arif. 1994. Fossil evidence for the origin of aquatic locomotion in archaeocete whales. Science 263:210-212.

Thewissen, J. G. M., L. J. Roe, J. R. O'Neil, S. T. Hussain, A. Sahni, and S. Bajpal. 1996. Evolution of cetacean osmoregulation. Nature 381:379-380.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Stenella coeruleoalba
Location Mediterranean Sea, between France and Corsica.
Copyright © 1991 Michel C. Milinkovitch
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2000. Cetacea. Whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Version 01 January 2000 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Cetacea/15977/2000.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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