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Enoploteuthis Orbigny in Rüppell 1844

Kotaro Tsuchiya
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The following 11 species are recognized in the genus.
taxon links [up-->]Enoploteuthis anapsis [up-->]Enoploteuthis octolineata [up-->]Enoploteuthis chuni [up-->]Enoploteuthis magnoceani [up-->]Enoploteuthis galaxias [up-->]Enoploteuthis leptura [up-->]Enoploteuthis reticulata [up-->]Enoploteuthis semilineata [up-->]Enoploteuthis higginsi [up-->]Enoploteuthis obliqua [up-->]Enoploteuthis jonesi [down<--]Enoploteuthidae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Enoploteuthidae

Introduction

Enoploteuthis contains the largest species in the family one, at least, can reach 130 mm ML. The species are most easily recognized by their larger tail compared to members of other genera in the family. The size of the tail is emphasized by the absence of fins along its sides. This contrasts with the narrow extension of the fins along the tails of members of other genera.

Brief diagnosis: 

An enoploteuthid ... 

Characteristics

From Young, et al., 1998.
  1. Arms
    1. Suckers present distally on Arms IV.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Manus of club with two series of hooks; marginal suckers absent.

  3. Buccal crown
    1. Typical chromatophores on aboral surface; may have light epithelial pigmentation on oral surface.

  4. Photophores
    1. Tips of arms IV lack enlarged photophores.
    2. Nine to ten photophores on eyeball.
    3. Complex photophores of integument, in life, without red-colored filters.

  5. Fins
    1. Fins terminate well in advance of posterior tip of tail. (see title photograph).

Comments

Enoploteuthis has only two clearly defined types of integumental photophores in contrast to other enoploteuthid genera which have three types of photophores on the ventral surfaces of the head, funnel and mantle. The most complex type is found in all species examined and seems to be distinctive of the genus.

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Figure. Integumental photophores of Enoploteuthis sp., Hawaiian waters. The arrows indicate "simple" photophores, of two sizes, with dark blue centers and a narrow white ring. The remaining five, slightly larger photophores are "complex" filtered photophores that exhibit three different physiological states. The central core in these shows varying degrees of transparency. The bright spot in the core of the most transparent photophore is a reflection off the axial color filter that lies buried in the center of the organ. The small dark spots and reddish patches are chromatophores.

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Figure. Ventral view of the ocular photophores (large white organs), beneath the smaller integumental photophores of Enoploteuthis sp, Hawaiian waters. The terminal ocular photophores are larger than the photophores between them. Photophores in the latter group alternate between having light and dark cores. The reason for this is unknown.

Classification

This genus consists of two natural groups: subgenus Enoploteuthis, which is characterized by having short, thin tentacles with small, thin clubs and subgenus Paraenoploteuthis, which has relatively long, thick tentacles with robust clubs (Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1988). The difference in the appearance of the tentacle is striking. Details of the club differ as follows:

 Tentacular club
Enoploteuthis (Enoploteuthis)
Enoploteuthis (Paraenoploteuthis)
Carpal locking-apparatus
Very elongate
Nearly circular
Relative hook size between
the two series on manus
Often subequal
Very unequal
Dactylus suckers
2 series
4 series
Ventral protective membrane ("flap") on manus
Absent
Present

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Figure. Oral views, tentacular clubs. Top - Club with characters of the E. (Enoploteuthis) group. Drawing from Tsuchiya and Okutani (1988). Note that the manus is narrower than the tentacle stalk. Bottom - Club with characters of the E. (Paraenoploteuthis) group. Drawing from Roper (1964). Note that the manus is distinctly broader than the tentacle stalk.

Other features that separate the subgenera include (1) differences in the hectocotylus (single flap on the ventral margin in E. (Enoploteuthis) vs single flaps on both margins in E. (Paraenoploteuthis)) and (2) numerous, small papillae on the oral surfaces arm I-III (present in males of E. (Enoploteuthis), absent in E. (Paraenoploteuthis)).

References

Burgess, L. A. 1982. Four new species of squid (Oegopsida: Enoploteuthis) from the Central Pacific and a description of adult Enoploteuthis reticulata. Fish. Bull. 80: 703-734.

Roper, C.F.E.1964. Enoploteuthis anapsis, a new species of enoploteuthid squid (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, 14(1):140-148.

Tsuchiya, K. and T. Okutani. 1988. Subgenera of Enoploteuthis, Abralia and Abraliopsis of the squid family Enoploteuthidae (Cephalopoda, Oegopsida). Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo (series A) 14: 119-136.

Young, R. E., L. A. Burgess, C. F. E. Roper, M. J. Sweeney and S. J. Stephen. 1998. Classification of the Enoploteuthidae, Pyroteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae. Smithsonian Contr. to Zoology, 586: 239-255.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Enoploteuthis sp.
Location Atlantic off USA
Comments Note large tail
Sex Fresh
View Dorsal
Copyright © Ron Gilmer (?)
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Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan

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Citing this page:

Tsuchiya, Kotaro. 2009. Enoploteuthis Orbigny in Rüppell 1844. Version 23 July 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Enoploteuthis/19641/2009.07.23 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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