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This is an archived version of a Tree of Life page. For up-to-date information, please refer to the current version of this page.


Scanning Electron Micrograph of EnterococcusScanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosaA photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis bacteria using Gram stain technique
taxon links [down<--]Life_on_Earth [up-->]Cyanobacteria [up-->]spirochaetes [up-->]Proteobacteria Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Containing group: Life on Earth


Ahmad, S., A. Selvapandiyan, and R. K. Bhatnagar. 1999. A protein-based phylogenetic tree for Gram-positive bacteria derived from hrcA, a unique heat-shock regulatory gene. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 49:1387-1394.

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DeLong E. F. and N. R. Pace. 2001. Environmental diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Systematic Biology 50:470-478.

Eisen, J. A. 1995. The RecA protein as a model molecule for molecular systematic studies of bacteria: Comparison of trees of RecAs and 16S rRNAs from the same species. Journal of Molecular Evolution 41:1105-1123. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21(9):1643-1660.

Emelyanov, V. V. and B. V. Sinitsyn. 1999. A groE-based phylogenetic analysis shows very close evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and Rickettsia. Russian Journal of Genetics 35:618-627.

Esser, C., N. Ahmadinejad, C. Wiegand, C. Rotte, F. Sebastiani, G. Gelius-Dietrich, K. Henze, E. Kretschmann, E. Richly, D. Leister, D. Bryant, M. A. Steel, P. J. Lockhart, D. Penny and W. Martin. 2004. A genome phylogeny for mitochondria among alpha-proteobacteria and a predominantly eubacterial ancestry of yeast nuclear genes.

Fox, G. E., E. Stackebrandt, R. B. Hespell, J. Gibson, J. Maniloff, T. A. Dyer, R. S. Wolfe, W. E. Balch, R. S. Tanner, L. J. Magrum, L. B. Zablen, R. Blakemore, R. Gupta, L. Bonen, B. J. Lewis, D. A. Stahl, K. R. Luehrsen, K. N. Chen, and C. R. Woese. 1980. The phylogeny of prokaryotes. Science 209:457-463.

Gray, M. W., G. Burger, and B. F. Lang. 1999. Mitochondrial evolution. Science 283:1476-1481.

Gruber, T. M. and D. A. Bryant. 1997. Molecular systematic studies of eubacteria, using sigma(70)-type sigma factors of group 1 and group 2. Journal of Bacteriology 179:1734-1747.

Gupta, R. S. 1997. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: Evolutionary relationships within prokaryotes and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 72:49-61.

Gupta, R. S. 1998. Protein phylogenies and signature sequences: A reappraisal of evolutionary relationships among archaebacteria, eubacteria, and eukaryotes. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 62:1435-1491.

Gupta, R.S., K. Bustard, M. Falah, D. Singh. 1997. Sequencing of heat shock protein 70 (DnaK) homologs from Deinococcus proteolyticus and Thermomicrobium roseum and their integration in a protein-based phylogeny of prokaryotes. Journal of Bacteriology 179:345-357.

Gupta, R. S., T. Mukhtar, and B. Singh. 1999. Evolutionary relationships among photosynthetic prokaryotes (Heliobacterium chlorum, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, cyanobacteria, Chlorobium tepidum and proteobacteria): implications regarding the origin of photosynthesis. Molecular Microbiology 32:893-906.

Huang, W. M. 1996. Bacterial diversity based on type II DNA topoisomerase genes. Annual Review of Genetics 30:79-107.

Huang, Y. P. and J. Ito. 1999. DNA polymerase C of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus: Classification and phylogenetic analysis of the family C DNA polymerases. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48:756-769.

Hugenholtz, P., B. M. Goebel, and N. R. Pace. 1998. Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity. Journal of Bacteriology 180:4765-4774.

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Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Enterococcus
Comments Scanning Electron Micrograph of Enterococcus
Creator CDC/Janice Carr
Acknowledgements photo courtesy Public Health Image Library
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Scientific Name Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Comments Scanning Electron Micrograph of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Creator CDC/Janice Carr
Acknowledgements photo courtesy Public Health Image Library
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Scientific Name Bacillus anthracis
Comments A photomicrograph of the Anthrax bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, using Gram stain technique
Acknowledgements photo courtesy Public Health Image Library
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
About This Page
Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2005. Eubacteria. Version 01 January 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Eubacteria/2/2005.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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