EunicaAndrew V. Z. Brower and Niklas Wahlberg
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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The genus Eunica was extensively revised by Jenkins (1990), who also included a cladistic analysis of 55 morphological characters. Species of Eunica are found mainly in South America with a few species found in Central America and the Greater Antilles. The genus comprises 40 currently accepted species (Lamas 2004). The host plants have been recorded for only a few species, but in line with other species in Biblidinae, these are in the plant families Euphorbiaceae and Burseraceae.
According to Jenkins (1990) the diagnostic features of Eunica are:
- Male uncus with a terminal small, usually separate, extended and curved beak
- Male tegumen elongate and often constricted posteriorly
- Male gnathos reduced, narrowed or shortened, rarely with a gnathos arm and rarely fused or joined ventrally
- Forewing with base of costa somewhat angled
- Male wings black or brown usually marked or glossed with iridescent blue, females dimorphic, usually brown with white maculae or band on forewing
The phylogenetic hypothesis for Eunica is based solely on morphological characters at the moment. The tree has a consistency index of 0.40, meaning that many of the characters are homoplasious. Clearly more data (both morphological and molecular) are needed to corroborate the relationships shown. The study by Jenkins (1990) did have several well-supported results. First, he showed that the species Eunica cuvierii (previously placed in the monotypic genus Libythina) belongs in Eunica. Several of the clades in the tree above are supported by unique synapomorphies.
Jenkins, D. W. 1990. Neotropical Nymphalidae. VIII. Revision of Eunica. Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 131:1-175.
Lamas, G. (ed) 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A, Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. Scientific Publishers, Gainsville, Florida.
Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at and Niklas Wahlberg at
Page copyright © 2006 and Niklas Wahlberg
- First online 04 October 2006
- Content changed 16 October 2006
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. and Wahlberg, Niklas. 2006. Eunica http://tolweb.org/Eunica/70457/2006.10.16 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 16 October 2006 (under construction).