Under Construction

Grimalditeuthis Joubin, 1898

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi (Verany, 1839)

Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
The holotype is thought to be deposited in the Museum of Natural History, Nice, France, but its existence is uncertain.
Containing group: Chiroteuthidae

Introduction

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi is very gelatinous and contains vesiculate tissue in the head, arms and mantle. It is generally Chiroteuthis-like in appearance (long neck, body and fin shape) but is distinguished by subequal arms and fusion of each funnel-mantle locking apparatus. Only scattered chromatophores are present, and the eyes are small. This species is infrequently captured but seems to have a world-wide distribution in tropical to temperate seas.

Diagnosis

A chiroteuthid ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms approximately subequal in length, gelatinous.
    2. Sucker base with three conical papillae (unique character).
    3. Protective membranes absent.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of large arm III sucker, stalk and base, with inner ring at right, G. bonplandi, 89 mm ML, female, off Southern California. Drawing from Young (1972).

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club divided into two portions by symmetrical protective membranes.
    2. Suckers absent from clubs.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Tentacle-clubs of G. bomplandi. A - Aboral view. B - Oral view. a single intact tentacle was found on a specimen taken from the stomach of the fish Alepisaurus ferox (courtesy of Lourdes Burgess). The tentacle club lacked suckers and showed no indication that suckers or sucker stalks were ever present as the skin was intact. Drawings by A. D. Hart.

  3. Head
    1. Olfactory organ located lateral to base of funnel (i.e., immediately anterior to collar at posterior end of neck).

    2. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  4. Funnel
    1. Funnel valve present.
    2. Funnel fused to mantle at each funnel-mantle locking-apparatus (head not fused to mantle in nuchal region).

  5. Photophores
    1. Absent accept at the arm tips of mature (?) females (See "More details ...").

  6. Tail
    1. Tail retained in adults with two fin-like "floatation devices" (= secondary fins) arise from tail.

Comments

More details of the description can be found here.

The function of the suckerless club is unknown. Tentacle stalks are very thin, fragile and almost always broken off in capture.

This species also has a very characteristic pattern of chromatophores on the head. A line of chromatophores passes across the ventral surface of the head between the anterior ends of eyes; another line runs along the neck from each olfactory papilla anteriorly to each eye, then anterior to each eye along the brachial pillar, terminating at the base of the arms.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Insitu ventrolateral view of the head of G. bonplandi showing the characteristic chromatophore strip along the side of the head and a previously unrecognized iridescent patches on the ventral side of the head. Photograph © 2011 MBARI.

Nomenclature

Joubin (1898) described a second species, G. richardi based on the presence of photophores on the tips of the arms. Pfeffer (1912) synonomized the two and this was supported by Young (1972) and Nesis (1982).

Life History

The doratopsis was first described by Chun (1910) as Doratopsis sagitta. A growth series of the paralarvae was described by Young (1991), and can be found below. The early doratopsis stage is similar to that of other species in the family. The older doratopsis shows many of the features of the subadult including the distinctive chromatophore pattern and the small eyes.

  1. At sizes larger than 9 mm ML Grimalditeuthis doratopsis paralarvae are easily identified by:
    1. Small eye size.
    2. Position of the olfactory papillae opposite the base of the funnel.
    3. Distinctive chromatophore pattern on the head (same as subadult pattern).
    4. Separation of optic lobes from brain.
    5. Anterior position of the superior buccal and brachial lobes.
  2. At sizes smaller than 9 mm paralarvae are identified by a combination of:
    1. A long brachial pillar with a centrally located esophagus.
    2. Number of chromatophores on the funnel shoulders and the ventral head posterior to the eyes.
    3. Just slightly elongate eye-shape.
    4. Shape of the vesiculate area on the posterior end of the mantle (nearly flat anteriorly).
    Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
    Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

    Figure. Paralarvae of G. bonplandi, Hawaiian waters. Thumbnail - Ventral view of the three paralarvae showing relative sizes. A - Side view of the head showing the long brachial pillar and the central position of the esophagus. B-D - Dorsal and ventral views of paralarvae at three different sizes. E - Oral view of the tentacular club. Proximal to the typical doratopsid club there is a scattered arrangement of suckers  which contrasts with the denser and more orderly arrangement of presumptive adult clubs in advanced paralarvae of Chiroteuthis and Asperoteuthis. Scale bars are 1 mm. Drawings from Young (1991)

Distribution

Vertical distribution

A small number of captures off Hawaii (Young 1978) included three small squid from the upper 350 m that probably had not descended from the shallow paralarval habitat and five squid from depths greater than 700 m.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Vertical distribution chart of G. bonplandi, Hawaiian waters. Captures were made with both open and opening/closing trawls. Bars - Fishing depth-range of opening/closing trawl. Circle - Modal fishing depth for either trawl. Blue color - Night captures. Yellow color - Day captures. Chart modified from Young (1978).

Geographical distribution

The type locality is 29° N and 39° W in the North Atlantic. It is known from the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic and the tropical and temperate North Pacific (Nesis, 1982). 

Other Names for Grimalditeuthis bonplandi (Verany, 1839)

References

Joubin, L. 1898. Observations sur divers Cephaloppodes. Quatrieme note: Grimalditeuthis Richardi Joubin 1898. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 23: 101-113.

Pfeffer, G. 1912. Die Cephalopoden der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebniss der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung. 2: 1-815.

Verany, J. B. 1839. Memoire sur six novelles especes de Cephalopodes trouvees dans la Mediterranee a Nice. Memoire della Resle Accademia della Science de Torino, series 2, 1: 91-98

Young, R. E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 97: 1-159.

Young, R. E. 1978. Vertical distribution and photosensitive vesicles of pelagic cephalopods from Hawaiian waters. Fish. Bull., 76: 583-615.

Young, R. E. 1991. Chiroteuthid and related paralarvae from Hawaiian waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. 49: 162-185.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Grimalditeuthis bonplandi
Location Off Southern California
Reference modified from Young, R. E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California. Smithson. Contr. Zool. 97:1-159.
Sex Female
View Ventral
Size 89 mm ML
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
Scientific Name Grimalditeuthis bonplandi
Location Hawaiian waters
Comments The photograph shows the delicate, translucent nature of the fin and its light pigmentation. A human finger can be seen behind the fin.
Body Part Fins
View Ventral
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., USA

Page: Tree of Life Grimalditeuthis Joubin, 1898. Grimalditeuthis bonplandi (Verany, 1839). Authored by Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Clyde F. E. Roper. 2014. Grimalditeuthis Joubin, 1898. Grimalditeuthis bonplandi (Verany, 1839). Version 21 January 2014 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Grimalditeuthis_bonplandi/19463/2014.01.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Leaf Page.

Each ToL leaf page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a leaf at the tip of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a leaf and a branch of the Tree of Life is that a leaf cannot generally be further subdivided into subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box

Grimalditeuthis bonplandi

Page Content

articles & notes

collections

people

Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page
top