Cranes, Rails, and Coots
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Although the order Gruiformes is likely not a natural group, the five families within the suborder "Grues" show close affinities in both morphological (Cracraft, 1982; Livezey, 1998) and DNA (Sibley and Ahlquist, 1990; Houde et al., 1997; Fain et al., 2007) comparisons. Displayed relationships within Grues are from Fain et al. (2007). Inferred placement of Psophiidae differs across genes and studies. Livezey and Zusi (2007) find Grues to be paraphyletic, with the clade Rallidae+Heliornithidae allied with Charadriiformes; however, this finding has little statistical support.
Cracraft, J. 1982. Phylogenetic relationships and transatlantic biogeography of some gruiform birds. Geobios, Mem. Spec. 6: 393-402.
Fain, M. G., C. Krajewski, and P. Houde. 2007. Phylogeny of ?core Gruiformes? (Aves: Grues) and resolution of the Limpkin?Sungrebe problem. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43 (2): 515-529.
Houde, P., A. Cooper, E. Leslie, A. E. Strand, and G. A. Montano. 1997. Phylogeney and evolution of 12S rDNA in Gruiformes (Aves). In: Mindell, D. P. (ed.), Avian Molecular Evolution and Systematics. Academic Press, San Diego. Pp. 121-158.
Livezey, B. C. 1998 A phylogenetic analysis of the Gruiformes (Aves) based on morphological characters, with an emphasis on rails (Rallidae). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 353: 2077-2151.
Livezey, B. C., and R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149 (1): 1-95.
Sibley, C. G. and Ahlquist, J. E. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Page copyright © 2007
- First online 14 December 2005
- Content changed 31 August 2007
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2007. Gruiformes. Cranes, Rails, and Coots. Version 31 August 2007 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Gruiformes/26307/2007.08.31 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/