go to the Tree of Life home page
Temporary Page
This is an archived version of a Tree of Life page. For up-to-date information, please refer to the current version of this page.



Ice bugs, Ice crawlers, Rock crawlers

Containing group: Neoptera


In cold areas, often in mountains, under rocks and in litter in forests, and in caves. In summer the North American species feed at night on insects frozen on the surface of snow fields; they are somewhat omnivorous. Western North America, Japan, Korea, China, Siberia.

Unknown as fossils, although some researchers (e.g., Vrsansky et al. 2001) consider grylloblattids to be related to the Protorthoptera complex dating back to the Carboniferous.



Ando, H., ed. 1982. Biology of the Notoptera. Kashiyo-Insatsu Co., Ltd., Nagano, Japan. 194 pp.

Ford, N. 1926. On the behavior of Grylloblatta. Canadian Entomoogist 58:66-70.

Gurney, A. B. 1948. The taxonomy and distribution of the Grylloblattidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 50:86-102.

Gurney, A. B. 1953. Recent advances in the taxonomy and distribution of Grylloblatta (Orthoptera: Grylloblattidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 43:325-332.

Gurney, A. B.  1961.  Further advances in the taxonomy and distribution of Grylloblattidae.  Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74:67-76.

Henson, W. R. 1957. Temperature preference of Grylloblatta compodeiformis (Walker). Nature 179:637.

Jarial, M. S. 1990. Fine-structure of malpighian tubules Grylloblatta compodeiformis (Orthoptera, Grylloblattidae). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 109(4):329-341.

Kamp, J. W. 1973. Numerical classification of the orthopteroids, with special reference to the Grylloblattodea. Canadian Entomologist 105:1235-1249.

Kamp, J. W. 1979. Taxonomy, distribution, and zoogeographic evolution of Grylloblatta in Canada (Insecta, Notoptera). Canadian Entomologist 111(1):27-38.

Nagashima, T. 1991. Postembryonic development and homology of external genitalia in Galloisiana nipponensis (Caudell et King) (Notoptera, Grylloblattidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology & Embryology 20(3):157-168.

Pritchard, G. and P. Scholefield. 1978. Observations on food, feeding-behavior, and associated sense-organs of Grylloblatta campodeiformis (Grylloblattodea). Canadian Entomologist 110(2):205-212.

Storozhenko, S. Y.  1988.  A review of the family Grylloplattidae [sic] (Insecta).  Articulata 3(5):167-181.

Storozhenko, S. Y.  1995. To the knowledge of the genus Grylloblattella (Grylloblattida, Grylloblattidae). Far Eastern Entomologist 10:19-20.

Vrsansky, P., S. Y. Storozhenko, C. C. Labandeira, and P. Ihringova. 2001. Galloisiana olgae sp. nov. (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) and the paleobiology of a relict order of insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94(2):179-184.

Walker, E. M. 1914. A new species of Orthoptera forming a new genus and family. Canadian Entomologist 46:93-99.

Walker, E. M. 1937. Grylloblatta, a living fossil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 31:1-10.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Grylloblatta sp.
Location USA: California: Carpenter Ridge
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Female
Copyright © 2003 Alex Wild
About This Page
Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Grylloblattodea. Grylloblattidae. Ice bugs, Ice crawlers, Rock crawlers. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Grylloblattidae/8256/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content



Explore Other Groups

random page