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Heliconius pachinus Salvin 1871

Heliconius cydno pachinus Salvin 1871 [Lamas (2004) views pachinus as a subspecies of H. cydno]

Margarita Beltrán and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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Containing group: Heliconius

Introduction

This close relative of Heliconius cydno is endemic to the Pacific slope of Costa Rica and western Panama. It is involved in Müllerian mimicry with H. hewitsoni.

Characteristics

Early stages:  Eggs are yellow and approximately 1.6 x 1 mm (h x w). Females usually place eggs singly on growing shoots and tendrils of the host plant. Early instar larvae have a white body and black spines. Mature larvae have a pinkish brown body with black spots, black scoli and the head is orange with two black horns, length is around 1.4 cm. Caterpillars are gregarious in small numbers (Brown, 1981; DeVries, 1997).  

Adult: H. pachinus can be distinguished from mimetic H. hewitsoni by the proximal yellow forewing band. In H. pachinus, this band is entirely beyond the end of the discal cell, while in H. hewitsoni, the yellow band cuts through the distal end of the discal cell. H. pachinus lacks the brown "forceps" marking on the underside of the hindwing that occurs in H. cydno forms, and instead exhibits rather extensive red basal streaks, another feature it shares in common with its mimic H. hewistoni.

Geographical Distribution

Heliconius pachinus is distributed in Costa Rica and Panama. This map shows an approximate representation of the geographic distribution of this species. The original data used to draw these maps are derived from Brown (1979) which is available at Keith S. Brown Jr. (1979). Ecological Geography and Evolution in Neotropical Forests

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Distribution of Heliconius pachinus and related species. © Margarita Beltran

Habits

H. pachinus occurs from sea level to 1,600 m in association with rain forest habitats. Usually individuals fly rapidly and in the lower story. Females mate multiply and adults roost solitarily at night at 2-10 m above ground on twigs or tendrils.

Hostplant: Passiflora costaricensis, P. vitifolia, and many other Passiflora spp (Passifloracea) (DeVries, 1997).

References

Beltr?n, M., Jiggins, C. D., Brower, A. V. Z., Bermingham, E. & Mallet, J. 2007 Do pollen feeding, pupal-mating and larval gregariousness have a single origin in Heliconius butterflies? Inferences from multilocus DNA sequence data. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 92, 221-239.

Brown K. S. 1981 The Biology of Heliconius and Related Genera. Annual Review of Entomology 26, 427-456.

DeVries P. J. 1997 The Butterflies of Costa Rica and Their Natural History, Volume I: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae Princeton University Press, Baskerville, USA.

Lamas, G. (ed.) 2004 Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.

Salvin, O. [1835-1898] 1871. Descriptions of new species of butterflies from tropical America. Annals and Magazine of natural History (4)7(42): 412-416.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Heliconius pachinus
Location Panama: Chiriqu?, Caf? Duran Finca near Santa Clara
Comments voucher specimen from Beltr?n et al. (2007)
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Identified By Margarita Beltr?n
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage adults
Body Part wings and legs
View dorsal (above) and ventral (Below)
Source STRI-B-8023
Source Collection NSG voucher specimen database
Copyright © 2008 Carlos Pe?a
About This Page


University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK


Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Margarita Beltr?n at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Heliconius pachinus Salvin 1871. Heliconius cydno pachinus Salvin 1871 [Lamas (2004) views pachinus as a subspecies of H. cydno]. Authored by Margarita Beltr?n and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Beltrán, Margarita and Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2008. Heliconius pachinus Salvin 1871. Heliconius cydno pachinus Salvin 1871 [Lamas (2004) views pachinus as a subspecies of H. cydno]. Version 12 August 2008 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Heliconius_pachinus/72254/2008.08.12 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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