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This is an archived version of a Tree of Life page. For up-to-date information, please refer to the current version of this page.


True bugs

taxon links [down<--]Hemiptera [up-->]Enicocephalomorpha [up-->]Dipsocoromorpha [up-->]Gerromorpha [up-->]Nepomorpha [up-->]Leptopodomorpha [up-->]Cimicomorpha [up-->]Pentatomomorpha Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Tree based upon Schuh 1979, Wheeler et al. (1993)
Containing group: Hemiptera


Ahmad, I. and M. Moizuddin. 1990. A revision of Acanthosomatidae (Hemiptera: Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea) from Indo-Pakistan area with a cladistic analysis of the genera. Oriental Insects 24(0): 267-304.

Andersen, N. M. 1982. The Semiaquatic Bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha) Phylogeny, Adaptations, Biogeography and Classification. Entomonograph vol. 3, Klampanborg, Denmark.

Bourgoin, T. 1986. Morphological value of the maxillary plate in the Hemiptera: Phylogenetic remarks. Annales De La Societe Entomologique De France 22(4): 413-422.

Carver, M., G.F. Gross and T.E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.). Pages 429-509 in The Insects of Australia. I.D. Naumann, ed. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Cobben, R. H. 1968,1978. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Parts 1,2. Wageningen, Netherlands.

Dolling, W. R. 1991. The Hemiptera. Oxford University Press, London: 274 pp.

Drake, C. J. and Ruhoff, F. A. 1965. Lace bugs of the world: a catalogue (Hemiptera: Tingidae. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 634 pp.

Henry, T.J. & R.C.Froeschner, eds. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. E. J. Brill, Leiden.

Horvath, Geza. 1927. General catalogue of the Hemiptera. Smith College Pub, Northhampton, Mass: Vol 23.

Miller, N. C. E., 1956, Biology of the Heteroptera. Methuen, London

Parshley, H. M. 1925. A bibliography of North American Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Smith College Pub., Northhampton, Mass.: 252 pp.

Schaefer, C.W. 1990. The Hemiptera of North America: what we do and do not know. Pages 105-118 in Systematics of the North American insects and arachnids: status and needs. Contribution No. 3 to the National Biological Survey. Info. Ser. 90-1. Kosztarab, M., Schafer, C.W. . eds. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg.

Schaefer, C. W. (ed.) 1996. Studies on Hemipteran Phylogeny. Proceedings of Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland.

Schuh, R. T. 1979. Review of Cobben, Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Syst.Zool. 28:653-656.

Schuh, R. T. 1986, The influence of cladistics on heteropteran classification. Ann.Rev.Ent. 31: 67-94

Schuh, R. T. and P. Stys. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of cimicomorphan family relationships (Heteroptera). Journal Of The New York Entomological Society 99(3): 298-350.

Schuh, R.T. and J.A. Slater. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. xii + 336 pp.

Slater, J. A. & R. M. Baranowski, 1978. How to Know the True Bugs (Hemiptera - Heteroptera). Brown, Dubuque.

Stys, P. 1996. Some groundplan characters of the Heteroptera. Pages 111-118 in Studies on Hemipteran Phylogeny. C. W. Schaefer, ed. Proceedings of Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland.

Stys, P. and Kerzhner, 1975. The rank and nomenclature of higher taxa in recent Heteroptera. Acta Ent. Bohemoslov. 72: 64-79.

Torre-Bueno, J. R. 1939. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Brooklin Entomological Society, Brooklin, New York: 122 pp.

Vasarhelyi, T. 1987. On the relationships of the eight aradid subfamilies (Heteroptera). Acta Zoologica Hungarica 33(1-2): 263-268.

Vasquez, M. and T. Lopez. 1999. Filogenia de Heteroptera (Phylogeny of Heteroptera). Boletin de la SEA 26:427-434.

Wheeler, W.C., R.T. Schuh, and R. Bang. 1993. Cladistic relationships among higher groups of Heteroptera: congruence between morphological and molecular data sets. Ent. scand., 24:121-137.

Wootton, R. J. and C. R. Betts. 1986. Homology and function in the wings of Heteroptera. Systematic Entomology 11(3): 389-400.

Wygodzinsky, P. W. and K. Schmidt. 1991. Revision of the New World Enicocephalomorpha (Heteroptera). Bulletin Of The American Museum Of Natural History 0(200): 1-265.

Zrzavy, J. 1992. Evolution of antennae and historical ecology of the hemipteran insects (Paraneoptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 89(2): 77-86.

Zrzavy, J. 1992. Morphogenesis of antennal exoskeleton in Heteroptera (Insecta): From phylogenetic to ontogenic pattern. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 89(3): 205-216.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Sigara nigrolineata
Location Slovenia
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage Adult
Copyright © Andrej Gogala
Scientific Name Lygus sp.
Location Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA
Comments Tarnished plant bug
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 2004 Alex Wild
Scientific Name Ischnodemus sabuleti
Location Germany
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage Nymph
Copyright © 2003 J?rgen Deckert
About This Page
Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2005. Heteroptera. True bugs. Version 01 January 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Heteroptera/10805/2005.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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