KondakoviaK.S.R. Bolstad, Michael Vecchione, and Richard E. Young
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Kondakovia is a sub-Antarctic to true Antarctic genus of large squids (adults to 740 mm ML), primarily set apart from similar species in Onykia by the presence of marginal sucker series on the tentacular clubs in subadults to adults.
An onychoteuthid ...
- with marginal suckers throughout club in subadults (unique character).
- without gladius visible beneath skin in dorsal midline.
- with 3 occipital folds.
- with fleshy longitudinal dermal ridges (K. longimana) or reticulate structure (K. nigmatullini) on the surface of the mantle.
- Tentacular club with 23-33 hooks flanked by complete series of small marginal suckers.
- Mantle soft and fleshy.
- Mantle skin with longitudinal ridges in large specimens of K. longimana (Clarke, 1980) and reticulate skin in K. nigmatullini (Laptikhovsky, Arkhipkin & Bolstad, 2008). The photographs below compare the skin of K. longimana (left, middle) with the skin of Onykia robsoni (right).
- Gladius not visible beneath skin in dorsal midline.
- Gladius thin and fragile with 3 pairs of narrow longitudinal ribs: one borders rhachis, one at marginal rim and one inbetween the other two.
- Gladius rostrum 5-13% of ML (Laptikhovsky, Arkhipkin & Bolstad, 2008); 2-5% of ML (Clarke, 1980).
- Gladius rostrum tricornate dorsally in cross-section along conus field; convex rib present over full length of flat dorsal surface.
This genus is thought to occupy epi- and mesopelagic waters in the Southern Ocean, where it may be circumpolar and reach northward to South Georgia and the Tasman Sea (Kubodera et al. 1998).
Clarke, M. R. 1980. Cephalopoda in the diet of sperm whales of the Southern Hemisphere and their bearing on sperm whale biology. Discovery Reports, 37: 1-324.
Filippova, Y.A. 1972. New Data on the Squids (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Scotia Sea. Malacologia, 11(2):391-406.
Kubodera, T., U. Piatkowski, T. Okutani and M.R. Clarke. 1998. Taxonomy and Zoogeography of the Family Onychoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 586: 277-291.
Laptikhovsky, V., A. Arkhipkin and K.S. Bolstad. A second species of the squid genus Kondakovia (Cephalopoda: Onychoteuthidae) from the sub-Antarctic. Polar Biology 32: 21-26.
Auckland University of Technology
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to K.S.R. Bolstad at
Page copyright © 2010 K.S.R. Bolstad, , and
Page: Tree of Life Kondakovia Authored by . K.S.R. Bolstad, Michael Vecchione, and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- Content changed 16 November 2010
Citing this page:
Bolstad, K.S.R., Michael Vecchione, and Richard E. Young. 2010. Kondakovia http://tolweb.org/Kondakovia/19953/2010.11.16 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 16 November 2010 (under construction).