go to the Tree of Life home page
Under Construction
This is an archived version of a Tree of Life page. For up-to-date information, please refer to the current version of this page.

Liguriella Issel, 1908

Liguriella podophtalma Issel, 1908

Richard E. Young and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)
Liguriella podophtalma subadult female

Liguriella contains one recognized species. Voss, et al. (1992), however, suggest that two or more species exist.

Containing group: Taoniinae


These are moderate sized squid, reaching at least 243 mm ML (Voss, et al. 1992). Little is known about their biology.


A taoniin ...


  1. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club with suckers only.
    2. Carpal cluster absent.
    3. Two series of suckers and knobs on tentacular stalk.

  2. Funnel
    1. Funnel valve absent
    2. Funnel organ: Dorsal pad with three papillae.

  3. Mantle
    1. Tubercles present at funnel-mantle fusion.
      Ventral view of funnel-mantle fusionimage info

      Figure. Ventral view of funnel-mantle fusion, L. podophtalma, subadult female, 243 mm ML. Drawing from Voss (1980, p. 389, Fig. 7d).

  4. Fins
    1. Posterior insertion of fins at distal end of gladius.
    2. All but anterior margin of fins insert on vanes of gladius.

  5. Photophores
    1. Two contiguous photophores (one large, one small) on each eye.*
    2. Arm tip photophores absent.
      ventral view of ocular photoporesimage info

      Figure. Ventral view of ocular photophores, L. podophtalma, subadult female, 243 mm ML. Drawing from Voss (1980, p. 389, Fig. 7e).

*Unusual within family; shared with Sandalops.


Characteristics are from Voss (1980).

Life History

Voss, et al. (1992) illustrated a paralarva and a juvenile but state that only subadults and adults can be confidently identified. Note the elongate "club" of the paralarva.

Dorsal view of paralarvaimage info
Ventral view of a juvenile of Liguriella podopthalmaimage info

Figure. Top - Dorsal view of paralarva of L. podopthalma, 12 mm ML. Bottom - Ventral view of a juvenile of L. podopthalma, 68 mm ML. Drawings from Voss (1980, p. 389, Fig. 7c, b).


The genus occurs circumglobally in tropical and subtropical oceans (Voss, et al. 1992).


Voss, N. A. 1980. A generic revision of the Cranchiidae (Cephalopoda; Oegopsida). Bull. Mar. Sci., 30: 365-412.

Voss N. A., S. J. Stephen and Zh. Dong 1992. Family Cranchiidae Prosch, 1849. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 513: 187-210.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Liguriella podophtalma
Reference Voss, N. A. 1980. A generic revision of the Cranchiidae (Cephalopoda; Oegopsida). Bull. Mar. Sci., 30: 365-412
Sex Female
Life Cycle Stage subadult
Size 243 mm ML
Copyright © 1980 Bulletin of Marine Science
About This Page

Richard E. Young

Dept of Oceanography
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Mangold (1922-2003), Katharina M. 1999. Liguriella Issel, 1908. Liguriella podophtalma Issel, 1908. Version 01 January 1999 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Liguriella_podophtalma/19552/1999.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

close box

This page is a Tree of Life Leaf Page.

Each ToL leaf page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a leaf at the tip of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a leaf and a branch of the Tree of Life is that a leaf cannot generally be further subdivided into subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box

Liguriella podophtalma

Page Content




Explore Other Groups

random page