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Liocranchia reinhardti (Steenstrup 1856)

Richard E. Young and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)
Containing group: Liocranchia


In Hawaiian waters, this species appears to be a strong vertical migrator and may be a member of the mesopelagic boundary fauna as it seems to be more common off Hawaii over bottom depths of less than 700m than in more offshore waters (Young, 1995). In the tropical eastern North Atlantic, however, this species has a distribution more similar to its congener (see Distribution.)


  1. Mantle
    1. Tubercles present along middorsal line (i.e., over gladius).
  2. Photophores
    1. 14 oval photophores on eyeball: 7 in medial series, 6 in lateral series near lens and 1 in between (see photograph).
       image info

      Figure. Ventral view of an eye of L. reinhardti showing ocular photophores, Hawiian waters. Photograph by R. E. Young.

    2. Large photophores on the tips of arms III in mature females.


Additional description can be found here.

Life History

L. reinhardti paralarvae in Hawaiian waters can easily be separated from paralarvae of L. valdiviae, prior to development of the dorsal tubercles, by their chromatophore pattern. Young stages can be recognized by the single large chromatophore on the ventral tip of the mantle. Larger paralarvae develop, in addition, a row of large chromatophores near the anterior end of the ventral mantle. The scale bar is 1 mm.

 image info  image info  image info

Drawings of L. reinhardti paralarvae from Hawaiian waters (original), ventral and dorsal views of: 1. 2.9 mm ML 2. 4.5 mm ML 3. 7.7 mm ML. Copyright © 1996 R. E. Young.


L. reinhardti has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical and subtropical waters (Nesis, 1982).


Nesis, K. N. 1982/87. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. 385+ii pp. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian.). Translated into English by B. S. Levitov, ed. by L. A. Burgess (1987), Cephalopods of the world. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 351pp.

Voss, N. A. 1980. A generic revision of the Cranchiidae (Cephalopoda; Oegopsida). Bull. Mar. Sci. 30: 365-412.

Young, R. E. 1978. Vertical distribution and photosensitive vesicles of pelagic cephalopods from Hawaiian waters. Fish. Bull. 76: 583-615.

Young, R. E. 1995. Aspects of the natural history of pelagic cephalopods of the Hawaiian mesopelagic-boundary region. Pacific Science 49: 143-155.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Liocranchia reinhardti
Reference from Voss, N. A. 1980. A generic revision of the Cranchiidae (Cephalopoda; Oegopsida). Bull. Mar. Sci. 30: 365-412. p. 379, printed with the permission
Copyright © 1980 Bulletin of Marine Science
About This Page

Richard E. Young

Dept of Oceanography
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Mangold (1922-2003), Katharina M. 1996. Liocranchia reinhardti (Steenstrup 1856). Version 01 January 1996 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Liocranchia_reinhardti/19596/1996.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Liocranchia reinhardti

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