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Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857

Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006)
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This family is generally divided into three subfamilies and eleven genera that contain 22 species.
taxon links [up-->]Ommastrephinae [up-->]Todarodinae [up-->]Illicinae [down<--]Oegopsida Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Oegopsida

Introduction

Members of the Ommastrephidae are small (about 10 cm ML) to large (about 100 cm ML), muscular squids that are often the dominant large squids in oceanic and, occasionally, neritic waters.  A number of species are fished commercially. Although the family is very well characterized, placement of species with genera and subfamilies has, in some cases, been controversial. These controversies have often revolved around the importance of absence of a character (e. g., absence of foveola and side pockets from the funnel groove of Todaropsis, a featured shared with Illex) which, without adequate polarization, could be interpreted as a synapomorphy, a symplesiomorphy, or a convergent loss.

Brief diagnosis

An oegopsid squid ...

Characteristics


  1. Funnel/mantle locking-apparatus with an inverted T-shape.
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    Figure. Frontal views of the funnel/mantle locking apparatus. Left - Funnel component of Illex illecebrosus. Middle - Mantle component of Illex illecebrosus. Photographs by M. Vecchione. Right - Opened mantle cavity showing the funnel/mantle locking apparatus of Todaropsis eblanae. Drawing from Naef (1921-23).

    Comparisons of the funnel/mantle locking-apparatus between genera can be found here.

  2. Funnel adductor muscles
    1. Thick lateral funnel-adductor muscles connect lateral edges of funnel with head near its ventral surface. [These muscles are not homologous with the more superficial muscles of the Sepioidea which bear the same name.]
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    Figure. Ventral view of the funnel of Illex illecebrosus showing the strong lateral adductor muscles (arrows). These muscles are also seen in the drawing of Todaropsis eblanae above. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

  3. Paralarvae (rhynchoteuthion stage) with fused tentacles.
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    Figure. Rhynchoteuthion paralarvae. Left - Oral view, species unknown. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23). Middle -Ventral view of Ommastrephes bartramii, 4 days old, living. Photograph by Y. Sakurai. Right - Ventral view of Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, advanced, fresh. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Arms with biserial suckers.
  5. Tentacular clubs with quadraserial suckers (club dactylus with eight sucker series in Illex).
  6. Buccal connectives attach to dorsal borders of Arms IV.
  7. Distinctive, slender gladius with primary conus.
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    Figure. Ventral view of the gladius of Todarodes sagittatus, immature, 120 mm ML. Drawing from Naef (1921-23).

Comparison of subfamilies:
  Photophores present1
Dactylus suckers Funnel- groove foveola3  Funnel- groove side pockets3  Distal protective membranes on hectocotylus  Carpal locking apparatus2 
Illicinae  No  8 series
No  No  Absent  Absent 
Ommastrephinae  Yes  4 series  Yes  Yes  Ventral membrane enlarged subdistally  Present except Ornithoteuthis
Todarodinae No  4 series  Yes/No  No  Ventral membrane with thickened trabeculae  Absent 

1Photophores difficult to detect in some species.
2Defined as presence of knobs and corresponding suckers with smooth sucker rings.

3
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Figure. Ventral view of the funnel groove comparing modifications in two of the subfamilies. Drawing modified from Roper, et al. (1985).

Nomenclature

A list of all nominal genera and species in the Ommastrephidae can be found here. The list includes the current status and type species of all genera, and the current status, type repository and type locality of all species and all pertinent references.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

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Figure. Phylogenetic tree of the Ommastrephidae. The three basal branches represent the three subfamilies. Figure based on Roeleveld (1988).

The relationships presented here are from the phylogenetic study by Roeleveld (1988). The relationships are based on a number of different structures but rely heavily on the structure of the hectocotylus. The lack of known relationships among outgroups makes rooting of the tree difficult. Not all workers agree with the subfamial placement of genera (e.g. Nesis, 1982/7; Wormuth, et al., 1998). The latter authors place Todaropsis next to Illex in the Illicinae.

References

Nesis, K. N. 1982. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. 385+ii pp. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian.). Translated into English by B. S. Levitov, ed. by L. A. Burgess (1987), Cephalopods of the world. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 351pp.

Roeleveld, M. A. 1988. Generic interrelationships within the Ommastrephidae (Cephalopoda). P.277-314. In: M. R. Clarke and E. R. Trueman (eds.). The Mollusca. Vol. 12. Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods. Academic Press, N.Y., 355pp.

Wormuth, J. 1998 Workshop deliberations on the Ommastrephidae; a brief history of their systematics; and a review of the systematics, distribution and biology of the genera Martialia Rochebrune and Mabille, 1889, Todaropsis Girard, 1890, Dosidicus Steenstrup, 1857, Hyaloteuthis Gray, 1849, and Eucleoteuthis Berry, 1916. Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 586:373-384..

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Nototodarus hawaiiensis
Location off Hawaii
ToL Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 1996 Richard E. Young
Scientific Name Eucleoteuthis luminosa
Location off Hawaii
Copyright © 1996
About This Page

Richard E. Young
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006)
South African Museum, Cape Town, South Africa

Page: Tree of Life Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857. Authored by Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Martina A. Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006). The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E., Vecchione, Michael, and Compagno Roeleveld (ca. 1946-2006), Martina A. . 2008. Ommastrephidae Steenstrup 1857. Version 27 January 2008. http://tolweb.org/Ommastrephidae/19418/2008.01.27 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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