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Horseshoe worms

Containing group: Bilateria


Cohen, B. L. 2000. Monophyly of brachiopods and phoronids: reconciliation of molecular evidence with Linnean classification (the subphylum Phoroniformea nov.). Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 267:225-231.

Cohen, B. L., A. Gawthrop, and T. Cavalier-Smith. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of brachiopods and phoronids based on nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B 353:2039-2061.

Emig, C. C. 1982. The biology of the Phoronida. Advances in Marine Biology 19:1-89.

Emig C. C. 1985. Phylogenetic systematics in Phoronida (Lophophorata). Zeitschrift f?r zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 23:184-193.

Freeman, G. and M. Q. Martindale. 2002. The origin of mesoderm in phoronids. Dev. Biol. 252:301-11 .

Zimmer, R. L. 1997. Phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans, the lophophorates. Pages 279-305 in Embryology: Constructing the Organism. S. F. Gilbert and A. M. Raunio (eds.) Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations

Diagram showing the internal anatomy of a phoronid.
Drawing by Ivy Livingstone. Copyright © 1994 BIODIDAC.

Copyright © 1994 BIODIDAC
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Citing this page:

Maddison, David R. 2002. Phoronida. Horseshoe worms. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Phoronida/2493/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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