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Alfalfa butterflyWestern checkered white butterfly
taxon links [down<--]Papilionoidea Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Containing group: Papilionoidea


Ackery, P. R., R. de Jong, and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea, and Papilionoidea. Pages 264-300 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.

Braby, M. F. 2005. Provisional checklist of genera of the Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa 832:1?16.

Braby, M., R. Vila, and N. E. Pierce. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea): higher classification and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 147(2):239-275.

Bridges, C. A. 1988. Catalogue of Papilionidae and Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Urbana, Illinois: Charles A. Bridges.

Lamas, G. 2004. Pieridae. In: Lamas G, ed. Checklist: Part 4a Hesperioidea?Papilionoidea. In: Heppner JB, ed. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera, Vol. 5A. Gainesville: Association for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, 99?117.

Pollock, D. D., W. B. Watt, V. K. Rashbrook, and E. V. Iyengar. 1998. Molecular phylogeny for Colias butterflies and their relatives (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91(5):524-531.

Stavenga, D. G., S. Stowe, K. Siebke, J. Zeil, and K. Arikawa. 2004. Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271:1577?1584.

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Colias eurytheme (Coliadinae)
Location Bear River Ridge Road (Humboldt County, California, USA)
Comments Alfalfa butterfly
Creator T. W. Davies
Acknowledgements Courtesy CalPhotos
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 1999
Scientific Name Pontia occidentalis (Pierinae)
Location San Antonio Road to Mount Hamilton (Santa Clara County, California, USA)
Comments Western checkered white butterfly
Creator T. W. Davies
Acknowledgements Alfalfa butterfly
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 1999
About This Page
Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Pieridae. Version 02 June 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Pieridae/12176/2006.06.02 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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