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Pronophilina Reuter 1896

Andrew V. Z. Brower
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Containing group: Satyrini


A large neotropical clade of grass and bamboo-feeding satyrines. There are several apparent subclades–a south-temperate group of genera, and three mainly Andean clades with their main diversity occurring above 2000 m. Many species remain undescribed.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The list of included genera is inferred from relationships implied by the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Peña et al. (2006). However, the circumscription of Pronophilina has been viewed more narrowly by Viloria (2007) and Lamas et al. (in Lamas 2004), to include only the primarily Andean genera plus the Antillean Calisto, based on the presence of hairy eyes and two wing venation characters. These authors place the "Lymanopoda group" in Erebiina and the south temperate clade in Hypocystina (Coenonymphina in this classification). However, the molecular data do not support these hypotheses, More extensive sampling is needed to increase support for one or the other of these alternatives.


Forster W. 1964. Beitr?ge zur Kenntnis der Insektenfauna Boliviens. XIX. Einleitung Lepidoptera III. Satyridae. Ver?ffentlichungen der zoologischen Staatsammlung M?nchen 3: 81-160, plates 25-33.

Hayward KJ. 1953. Satiridos Argentinos (Lep. Rhop. Satyridae) I. Los generos (excluido Euptychia y Neomaniola). Acta Zool. Lilloana 13: 151-159.

Hayward KJ. 1958. Satiridos Argentinos (Lep. Rhop. Satyridae) II. Los g?neros (continuaci?n). Acta Zool. Lilloana 15: 161-182.

Lamas G ed. 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.

Pe?a, C., N. Wahlberg, E. Weingartner, U. Kodandaramaiah, S. Nylin, A.V.L. Freitas & A.V.Z. Brower. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1): 29-49.

Thieme O. 1905. Monographie der Gattung Pedaliodes Butl. (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera. Satyridae). Berl. Entom. Zeitschr. 49: 43-141, plates 1-3.

Thieme O. 1907. Monographische bearbeitung der Gattungen Lasiophila Felder, Daedalma Hew., Catargynnis R?ber, Oxeoschistus Butl., Pronophila Westw., Corades Doubl. Hew. (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera. Satyridae). Berl. Ent. zeit. 51: 99-234, plates 3-5.

Viloria AL. 2003. Historical biogeography and the origins of the satyrine butterflies of the Tropical Andes (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera). In: Morrone JJ and Llorente-Bousquets J, eds. Una perspectiva latinoamericana de la biogeograf?a. M?xico, D. F.: Las Prensas de Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. 247-261.

Viloria, AL. 2004 (2007). The Pronophilina: synopsis of their biology and systematics (Lepidoptera Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Trpopical Lepidoptera 15: 1-17.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Corades medeba
Location Cock of the Rock Lodge, Manu, Peru
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Medeba Satyr
Source Collection Neotropical Butterflies
Copyright © 2004 Kim Garwood
Scientific Name Oxeoschistus puerta
Location Cana Field Station, Darien, Panama
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Male
Source Puerta Satyr
Source Collection Neotropical Butterflies
Copyright © 2003 Will and Gill Carter
Scientific Name Eretris subpunctata
Location Pampa Hermosa Lodge, Chanchamayo Valley, Peru
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Subpuntata Satyr
Source Collection Neotropical Butterflies
Copyright © 2005 Kim Garwood
About This Page

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Pronophilina Reuter 1896. Authored by Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2008. Pronophilina Reuter 1896. Version 21 June 2008 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Pronophilina/70804/2008.06.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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