Kingfishers, Bee-eaters, Rollers, and relativesJoseph W. Brown and John Harshman
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Several families traditionally assigned to Coraciiformes have been removed from the order. Bucerotidae and Bucorvidae (hornbills), Upupidae and Phoeniculidae (hoopoes) have been given their own order, Bucerotiformes. Leptosomus (cuckoo roller) is not a roller, and is only distantly related to other traditional coraciiforms. An order that included all these groups would also have to encompass Piciformes and Trogoniformes.
Burton, P. J. K. 1984. Anatomy and evolution of feeding apparatus in the avian orders Coraciiformes and Piciformes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 47:331-443.
Fry, C.H., Fry, K. and Harris, A. 1992. Kingfishers, Bee-Eaters and Rollers: A Handbook. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hackett, S. J., Kimball, R. T., Reddy, S., Bowie, R. C. K., Braun, E. L., Braun, M. J., Chojnowski, J. L., Cox, W. A., Han, K.-L., Harshman, J., Huddleston, C. J., Marks, B. D., Miglia, K. J., Moore, W. A., Sheldon, F. H., Steadman, D. W., Witt, C. C., and Yuri, T. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320(5884):1763-1768.
Joseph W. Brown
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Joseph W. Brown at and John Harshman at
Page copyright © 2008 Joseph W. Brown and
Page: Tree of Life Coraciiformes. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters, Rollers, and relatives. Authored by Joseph W. Brown and John Harshman. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 14 December 2005
- Content changed 27 June 2008
Citing this page:
Brown, Joseph W. and John Harshman. 2008. Coraciiformes. Kingfishers, Bee-eaters, Rollers, and relatives. Version 27 June 2008 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Coraciiformes/56738/2008.06.27 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/