neotropical Actinote cladeAndrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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This clade contains all neotropical representatives of the Acraeini. However, as noted on the Actinote page, the genera or subgenera Abananote and Altinote are nested inside Actinote, and neither of them appears as monophyletic in the cladogram of Silva-Brandão et al. (2008).
Members of Actinote are chemically defended and serve as models in a variety of mimicry complexes.
Phylogenetic relationships as implied by the cladogram of Silva-Brandão et al. (2008), based on DNA sequences. The taxa with question marks were not included in their analysis, and so are listed as incertae sedis. Three recently described species, Actinote ballettae, Actinote romeroi and Actinote alberti, are in their putative positions as implied by the descriptions in Neild (2008).
Lamas G ed. 2004. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.
Neild, A. F. E. 2008 The Butterflies of Venezuela. Part 2: Nymphalidae II (Acraeinae, Libytheinae, NYmphalinae, Ithomiinae, Morphinae). London: Meridian Publications.
Pierre, J. 1987 Syst?matique cladistique chez les Acraea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Annls. Soc. Ent. Fr. (N. S.) 23, 11-27.
Silva-Brandao, K. L., Wahlberg, N., Francini, R. B., Azeredo-Espin, A. M. L., Brown, K. S. J., Paluch, M., Lees, D. C. & Freitas, A. V. L. 2008 Phylogenetic relationships of butterflies of the tribe Acraeini (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) and the evolution of host plant use. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46, 515-531.
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- First online 19 March 2008
- Content changed 13 February 2010
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2010. neotropical Actinote clade. Version 13 February 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/neotropical_Actinote_clade/118461/2010.02.13 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/