HydroscaphidaeDavid R. Maddison
Hydroscaphids are minute beetles. The following illustration shows an adult Hydroscapha (see arrow) on algae in its native habitat. The coin is a United States dime.
Here is a third-instar larva of Hydroscapha natans, from southern Arizona, crawling through algae:
The shiny white line protruding from the left side of the first abdominal segment is one of the spiracular gills.
Hydroscapha natans pupates within its last larval skin. The pupa, in the old skin, then floats at the surface of the water, held there by surface tension, as shown in the following figure:
Beutel, R.G. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Myxophaga (Coleoptera) with a redescription of Lepicerus horni (Lepiceridae). Zool. Anz., (1998/99):291-308.
Beutel, R.G., D.R. Maddison, and A. Haas. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Myxophaga (Coleoptera) using larval characters. Systematic Entomology, 24:171-192.
Reichardt, H. 1973a. A critical study of the suborder Myxophaga, with a taxonomic revision of the Brazilian Torridincolidae and Hydroscaphidae (Coleoptera). Arquivos de Zoologia, S. Paulo 24(2):73-162.
Reichardt, H. 1973b. More on Myxophaga: on the morphology of Scaphydra angra (Reichardt, 1971) (Coleoptera). Revista brasileira de Entomologia, 17 (!5), 109-110.
Reichardt, H. 1974. Relationships between Hydroscaphidae and Torridincolidae, based on larvae and pupae, with the description of the immature stages of Scaphydra angra (Coleoptera, Myxophaga). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 18 (4), 117-122.
Reichardt, H. and H. E. Hinton. 1976. On the New World beetles of the family Hydroscaphidae. Papéis Avulsos Zool., S. Paulo 30(1):1-24.
Richoux P. & Dolédec, S. (1987) Hydroscapha granulum (Motschulsky, 1855). Description of the larva and ecological notes. Aquatic Insects, 9, 137-144
David R. Maddison
Oregon State University
Page copyright © 1995 David R. Maddison
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Maddison, David R. 1995. Hydroscaphidae. Version 01 January 1995 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Hydroscaphidae/9052/1995.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/