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Classification after Castenholz 2001.
Containing group: Eubacteria

Other Names for Cyanobacteria


Anagnostidis, K. and J. Komárek. 1988. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 3—Oscillatoriales. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl 80) Algol. Stud. 50/53:327–472.

Barbrook, A. C., P. J. Lockhart, and C. J. Howe. 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of plastid origins based on secA sequences. Current Genetics 34:336-341.

Bhattacharya, D. and L. Medlin. 1995. The phylogeny of plastids: a review based on comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA coding regions. Journal of Phycology 31:489–498.

Bergman, B., J. Gallon, A. N. Rai, and L. Stal. 1997. Nitrogen fixing non-heterocystous cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiological Reviews 19:139-185.

Bryant, D. B. (ed.) 1994. The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston.

Capone, D. G, J. P. Zehr, H. W.Paerl, B. Bergman, and E. J.Carpenter. 1997. Trichodesmium, a globally significant marine cyanobacterium. Science 276:1221-1229.

Carr, N. G. and B. A. Whitton (eds.) 1982. The Biology of Cyanobacteria. Blackwell Science Publications, Oxford.

Castenholz, R. W. 1992. Species usage, concept, and evolution in the cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Journal of Phycology 28:737-745.

Castenholz, R. W. 2001. Phylum BX. Cyanobacteria. Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Volume 1: The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototropic Bacteria. Second Edition. G. Garrity, D. R. Boone, and R. W. Castenholz (eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York.

Chisholm, S. W., R. J. Olson, E. R. Zettler, R. Goericke, J. B. Waterbury, and N. A. Welschmeyer. 1988. A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the oceanic euphotic zone. Nature 334:340–343.

Delwiche, C. F. 1999. Tracing the thread of plastid diversity through the tapestry of life. American Naturalist 154 (Supplement): S164-S177.

Delwiche, C. F. and J. D. Palmer. 1996. Rampant horizontal transfer and duplication of rubisco genes in eubacteria and plastids. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13:873–882.

Delwiche, C. F. and J. D. Palmer. 1997. The origin of plastids and their spread via secondary symbiosis. Plant Systematics and Evolution 11 (Supplement):53-86.

Delwiche, C. F., M. Kunsel, and J. D. Palmer. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of tufA sequences indicates a cyanobacterial origin of all plastids. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4:110–128.

Douglas, S. E. 1998. Plastid evolution: origins, diversity, trends. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 8:655-661.

Doyle, J. J. 1998. Phylogenetic perspectives on nodulation: evolving views of plants and symbiotic bacteria. Trends in Plant Science 3:473-478.

Garrity, G. M., J. A. Bell, and T. G. Lilburn. 2004. Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition. Release 5.0.

Giovannoni, S. J., S. Turner, G. J. Olsen, S. Barns, D.J. Lane, and N. R. Pace. 1988. Evolutionary relationship among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts. Journal of Bacteriology 170:3584-3592.

Gupta, R. S., P. I. Mark, C. Chandrasekera, and V. Johari. 2003. Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastid homologues. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53:1833-1842.

Honda, D., A. Yokota, and J. Sugiyama. 1999. Detection of seven major evolutionary lineages in cyanobacteria based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with new sequences of five marine Synechococcus strains. Journal of Molecular Evolution 48:723-739.

Ishida, T., A. Yokota, and J. Sugiyama. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of filamentous cyanobacterial taxa inferred from 16S rRNA sequence divergence. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 43:237–241.

Jensen, T. E. 1993. Cyanobacterial ultrastructure. Pages 7-51 in Ultrastructure of Microalgae. ( T. Berner, ed.) CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Keeling, P. J. 2004. Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts. American Journal of Botany 91:1481-1493.

La Roche, J., G. W. M. van der Staay, F. Partensky, A. Ducret, R. Aebersold, R. Li, S. S. Golden, R. G. Hiller, P. M. Wrench, A. W. D. Larkum, and B. R. Green. 1996. Independent evolution of the prochlorophyte and green plant chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:15244–15248.

Lockhart, P.J., C. J. Howe, A. C. Barbrook, A. W. D. Larkum, and D. Penny. 1999. Spectral analysis, systematic bias, and the evolution of chloroplasts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16:573-576.

Morden, C. W. and S. S. Golden. 1989. psbA genes indicate common ancestry of prochlorophytes and chloroplasts. Nature 337:382–385.

Neilan, B. A., D. Jacobs, and A. E. Goodman. 1995. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of toxic cyanobacteria determined by DNA polymorphism within the phycocyanin locus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3875-3883.

Nelissen, B., R. De Baere, A. Wilmotte, and R. De Wachter. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of nonaxenic filamentous cyanobacterial strains based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Journal of Molecular Evolution 42:194-200.

Nelissen, B., Y. Van de Peer, A. Wilmotte, and R. De Wachter. 1995. An early origin of plastids within the cyanobacterial divergence is suggested by evolutionary trees based on complete 16S rRNA sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12:1166-1173.

Nelissen, B., A. Wilmotte, J.-M. Neefs, and R. De Wachter. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships among filamentous helical cyanobacteria investigated on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 17:206-210.

Palenik, B. and R. Haselkorn. 1992. Multiple evolutionary origins of prochlorophytes, the chlorophyll b-containing prokaryotes. Nature 355:265-267.

Palenik, B. and H. Swift. 1996. Cyanobacterial evolution and prochlorophyte diversity as seen in DNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 32:638–646.

Rai, A. N. (ed.) 1990. CRC Handbook of Symbiotic Cyanobacteria. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Rippka, R., J. Deruelles, J. B. Waterbury, M. Herdman, and R. Y. Stanier. 1979. Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111:1-61.

Shimada, A., S. Kanai, and T. Maruyama. 1995. Partial sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisophosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the phylogeny of Prochloron and Prochlorococcus (Prochlorales). Journal of Molecular Evolution 40:671–677.

Stanier, R. Y. and G. Cohen-Bazire. 1977. Phototrophic Prokaryotes: The Cyanobacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology 31:225-274.

Stanier, R. Y. and R. Ripka. 1983. A proposed system of generic designation based on studies on pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Hydrologie 45:273-274.

Tomitani, A., K. Okada, H. Miyashita, H. C. P. Matthijs, T. Ohno, and A. Tanaka. 1999. Chlorophyll b and phycobilins in the common ancestor of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. Nature 400:159-162.

Turner, S. 1997. Molecular systematics of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Plant Systematics and Evolution (Supplement) 11:13-52.

Turner, S., T. Burger-Wiersma, S. J. Giovannoni, L. R. Mur, and N. R. Pace. 1989. The relationship of a prochlorophyte Prochlorothrix hollandica to green chloroplasts. Nature 337:380–382.

Turner, S., K. M. Pryer, V. P. W. Miao, and J. D. Palmer. 1999. Investigating deep phylogenetic relationships among cyanobacteria and plastids by small subunit rRNA sequence analysis. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46:327-338.

Urbach, E., D. L. Robertson, and S. W. Chisholm. 1992. Multiple evolutionary origins of prochlorophytes within the cyanobacterial radiation. Nature 335:267-270.

Vonshak, A. (ed.) 1997. Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-biology and Biotechnology. Taylor & Francis, London.

Whitton, B. A. 1992. Diversity, ecology, and taxonomy of the cyano-bacteria. Pages 1-51 in Photosynthetic Prokaryotes. (N. H. Mann and N. G. Carr, eds.) Plenum Press, New York.

Whitton, B. A. and M. Potts (eds.) 1999. Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston.

Wilmotte, A. and S. Golubic. 1991. Morphological and genetic criteria in the taxonomy of Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl. 92) Algol. Stud. 64:1–24.

Wilmotte, A. and M. Herdman. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among the Cyanobacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences. Pages 487-493 in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Volume 1: The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototropic Bacteria. Second Edition. G. Garrity, D. R. Boone, and R. W. Castenholz (eds.) Springer-Verlag, New York.

Wilmotte, A., J.-M. Neefs, and R. DeWachter. 1994. Evolutionary affiliation of the marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067, derived by 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis. Microbiology 140:2159-2164.

Wilmotte, A., S. Turner, Y. Van de Peer, and N. R. Pace. 1992. Taxonomic study of marine oscillatoriacean strains (cyanobacteria) with narrow trichomes. II. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Journal of Phycology 28:828-838.

Wolfe, G. R., F. X. Cunningham, D. Durnford, B. R. Green, and E. Gantt. 1994. Evidence for a common origin of chloroplasts with light-harvesting complexes of different pigmentation. Nature 367: 566-568.

Zehr, J. P., T. M. Mellon, and W. D. Hiorns. 1997. Phylogeny of cyanobacterial nifH genes: evolutionary implications and potential applications to natural assemblages. Microbiology 143: 1443-1450.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Fischerella
Copyright © 1995
Scientific Name Prochloron
Copyright © 1995
Scientific Name Gloeocapsa
Comments Gloeocapsa are unicellular, but daughter cells often remain within the wall of the parent cell following division.
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 2007 John Giezentanner
Scientific Name Spirulina
Copyright © 1995
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Cyanobacteria. Version 10 March 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Cyanobacteria/2290/2006.03.10 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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