This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
- Propodeal spiracle elliptical to slit-shaped
- Waist of two segments (petiole plus postpetiole) (only petiole in queens and males)
- Abdominal spiracles V-VII oval to slit-shaped
Bolton, B. 1990b. Army ants reassessed: the phylogeny and classification of the doryline section. Journal of Natural History 24: 1339-1364.
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
Brady, S. 2003. Evolution of the army ant syndrome: the origin and long-term evolutionary stasis of a complex of behavioral and reproductive adaptations. PNAS 100(11): 6575-6579.
Gotwald, W. H., Jr. 1979. Phylogenetic implications of army ant zoogeography (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 72 (4): 462-467.
Gotwald, W. H., Jr and A. W. Burdette. 1981. Morphology of the male internal reproductive system in army ants: phylogenetic implications. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83: 72-92.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Perfil'eva, K. S. 2002. Wing venation in army ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and its importance for phylogeny. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 81 (10): 1239-1250.
Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
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- First online 21 October 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Ecitonini. Version 21 October 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ecitonini/22684/2004.10.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/