This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Arevalo, E., Y. Zhu, J. M. Carpenter and J. E. Strassmann 2004. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evi- dence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters. BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 4: 8.
Carpenter, J. M. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships and the origin of social behavior in the Vespidae. Pp. 7–32 in: K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews (eds.), Social Biology of Wasps. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Pickett, K. M. and J. M. Carpenter. 2010. Simultaneous analysis and the origins of sociality in the Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68(1): 3–33.
Wenzel, J. W. 1991. Evolution of nest architecture in social vespids. Pp. 480–519 in: K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews (eds.), The Social Biology of Wasps. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Wenzel, J.W. and J.M. Carpenter 1994. Comparing methods: Adaptive traits and tests of adaptation. Pp. 79–101 in: P. Eggleton and R. I. Vane-Wright (eds.), Phylogenetics and Ecology. Academic Press, London.
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- First online 14 June 2010
- Content changed 14 June 2010
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2010. Epiponini http://tolweb.org/Epiponini/144288/2010.06.14 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 14 June 2010 (temporary).