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E. 0. Wiley
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Containing group: Acanthomorpha


The Order Gadiformes is a basal clade of acanthomorph fishes comprising about 500 species including the economically important cods, hakes, and grenadiers. Cohen et al. (1990) reviewed the economically important species, and Markle (1989) provided a phylogenetic analysis, recognizing four suborders.


Markle (1989) identified four synapomorphies for Gadiformes.

  1. Three struts present on the third pharyngobranchial.
  2. Loss of epineurals (epipleurals of Markle) on the anterior two centra. We note that this is an equivocal synapomorphy not found in the family Ranicepitidae, a family Markle (1989) hypothesized as the basal gadiform clade.
  3. The presence of X and Y bones in the caudal fin (lost in more apical subgroups).
  4. Larvae with a lateral placement of the anus.


Cohen, D. M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto, and N. Scialabba. 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform Fishes of the World (Gadiformes). An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date. FAO Fishereis Synopsis No. 125, Vol. 10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 443pp.

Markle, D. F. Aspects of character homology and phylogeny of the Gadiformes. In: Papers on the Systematics of gadiform Fishes (D. M. Cohen, ed.). No. 32 Science Series, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Gadus morhua
Location captive at Montréal Biodôme
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Underwater Alien
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2005 M Kuhn
About This Page

E. 0. Wiley
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to E. 0. Wiley at

All Rights Reserved.

Citing this page:

Wiley, E. 0. 2007. Gadiformes. Version 09 January 2007 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Gadiformes/15093/2007.01.09 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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