Gondwanalox cladeKipling Will
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Gondwanalox clade is an informal name for Loxandrini + Abacetini. Member taxa are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few, almost certainly more recently derived species found in temperate zones. Most taxa are found in wet habitats and are normally collected in swampy or riparian situations. Loxandrines are restricted to Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Tasmania, South and Central America and mid to eastern North America as far north as the Great Lakes. Abacetines have a complementary distribution, ranging from Africa and southern Europe, across the Asian tropics to reach as far as northeastern Australia.
The adult and larval morphology of the included taxa have no single identifying characteristic nor is there a constant set of derived states that define this clade. The list below is mostly a collection of absence-state characteristics or plesiomorphic combinations that separates them from other groups that might be seen as similar.
Gondwanalox taxa are Harpalinae that have ALL of the following states:
- Lack angular base of stria one (present in many other carabids)
- Maxillary palpifer with a single seta positioned near base (multiple setae or a single seta near the middle is found in various other taxa)
- Filiform antennae (moniliform in drimostomatines, morionines and other taxa)
- Mouth parts without numerous long stiff setae (numerous long setae in chaetogenyines)
- Obvious suture medially between mentum and submentum (lacking in metiines)
- Abdominal sterna without deep punctures or sulci (present in various pterostichines)
- Tarsal claws smooth (pectinate in various other taxa)
- Brown to black, often iridescent (clear metallic colors found in various other taxa)
There have been several authors that discussed the possible association of loxandrines with abacetines (Van Emden 1949; Arndt 1988; Bousquet 1985; Straneo, 1991; Bousquet & Larochelle 1993; Bousquet 1999). This was also the result found in a cladistic analysis of morphological characters (Will 2000); however, the arrangement and monophyly was questionable and character support was minimal in that study of a rather limited set of taxa. In a later analysis that was focused on testing monphyly of Loxandrini based on morphology and sequence data from multiple gene loci, the Gondwanalox clade is always recovered (Will unpublished). The monophyly of Loxandrini is also well supported, while monophyly of Abacetini is still uncertain.
University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Kipling Will at
Page copyright © 2005 Kipling Will
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- First online 07 July 2006
- Content changed 07 July 2006
Citing this page:
Will, Kipling. 2006. Gondwanalox clade. Version 07 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Gondwanalox_clade/51599/2006.07.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/