HormaphidiniDavid L. Stern
Some species of Hormaphis have a peculiar gall-cleaning behavior. Aphids produce copious quantities of honeydew and when the aphids are within an enclosed space, such as a gall, they run the very real risk of drowning in their own exrement. Some species have therefore evolved the behavior of wrapping the honeydew in balls of wax (which they produce from wax glands on their body) and pushing the honeydew out through an opening in the gall. The behavior was first discovered in Hormaphis betulae by Kurosu and Aoki (1991) and has since been reported from the Cerataphidini (Hormpahididae) and Pemphigus (Pemphigidae).
Aoki, S and U. Kurosu. 1991. Host alternation of Hormaphis betulae (Homoptera, Aphidoidea). Japanese Journal of Entomology 59:164.
Blackman, R.L. and V.F. Eastop. 1994. Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. CAB International in association with the Natural History Museum, Wallingford.
Ghosh, A.K. 1981. Hormaphidinae: distribution, phylogeny and systematics. Proc. Int. Aphid. Symp. Jabl. pp. 303-336.
Kurosu, U. and S. Aoki. 1991. Gall cleaning by the aphid Hormaphis betulae. J. Ethology 9:51-55.
von Dohlen, C.D. and D.E. Gill. 1989. Geographic variation and evolution in the life cycle of the witch-hazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis. Oecologia 78:165-175.
von Dohlen, C.D. and M.B. Stoetzel. 1991. Separation and rediscription of Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch 1851) and Hormaphis cornu (Shimer 1867) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on witch-hazel in the eastern United States. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 93:533-548.
David L. Stern
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
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Stern, David L. 1995. Hormaphidini. Version 01 January 1995 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Hormaphidini/11050/1995.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/