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Ivan Fiala
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taxon links Phylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Animals Interpreting the tree
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The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Classification after Kent et al. 2001 and Canning et al. 2002.
Containing group: Animals


Anderson, C. L. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of the Myxozoa. Pages 341–350 in: Evolutionary Relationships among Protozoa. G. H. Coombs, K. Vickerman, M. A. Sleigh and A. Warren, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.

Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1998. A triploblast origin for Myxozoa? Nature392:346.

Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1999. Molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the Myxozoa. Parasitology 119(6):555-561.

Canning, E. U., A. Curry, S. W. Feist, M. Longshaw, and B. Okamura. 2000. A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 47:456?468.

Canning, E. U. and B. Okamura. 2004. Biodiversity and evolution of the myxozoa. Advances in Parasitology 56:43-131.

Canning E. U., S. Tops, A. Curry, T. S. Wood, and B. Okamura. 2002. Ecology, development and pathogenicity of Buddenbrockia plumatellae Schr?der, 1910 (Myxozoa, Malacosporea) (syn. Tetracapsula bryozoides) and establishment of Tetracapsuloides n. gen. for Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49(4):280-295.

Fiala I., 2006. The phylogeny of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 1521-1534.

Jim?nez-Guri, E., H. Philippe, B. Okamura, P. W. H. Holland. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science 317(5834):116-118.

Kent, M. L., K. B.Andree, J. L.Bartholomew, M.El-Matbouli, S. S.Desser, R. H.Devlin, S. W.Feist, R. P.Hedrick, R. W.Hoffmann, J.Khattra, S. L.Hallett, R. J. G.Lester, M.Longshaw, O.Palenzeula, M. E.Siddall, and C.Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48:395-413.

Lom J. and I. Dykova. 2006. Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitologica 53(1):1-36.

Monteiro, A. S., B. Okamura, and P. W. H. Holland. 2002. Orphan worm finds a home: Buddenbrockia is a Myxozoan. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:968-971.

Okamura, B. and E. U. Canning. 2003. Orphan worms and, homeless parasites enhance bilaterian diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(12):633-639.

Okamura, B., A. Curry, T. S. Wood and E. U. Canning. 2002. Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia identifies it as a myxozoan and verifies the bilaterian origin of the Myxozoa. Parasitology 124:215-223.

Schlegel, M., J. Lom, A. Stechmann, D. Bernhard, D. Leipe, I. Dykov?, and M. L. Sogin. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of complete small subunit ribosomal RNA coding region of Myxidium lieberkuehni: evidence that Myxozoa are Metazoa and related to the Bilateria. Archiv f?r Protistenkunde 147:1–9.

Siddall, M. E., D. S. Martin, D. Bridge, S. S. Desser, and D. K. Cone. 1995. The demise of a phylum of protists: phylogeny of the Myxozoa and other parasitic cnidaria. Journal of Parasitology 81:961–967.

Siddall, M. E. and M. F. Whiting. 1999. Long-branch abstractions. Cladistics 15:9–24.

Smothers, J. F., C. D. von Dohlen, L. H. Smith, Jr., and R. D. Spall. 1994. Molecular evidence that the myxozoan protists are metazoans. Science 265:1719–1721.

Xiao, C. and S. S. Desser. 2000. Cladistic analysis of myxozoan species with known alternating life-cycles. Systematic Parasitology 46:81–91.

Whipps, C. M., G. Grossel, R. D. Adlard, H. Yokoyama, M. S. Bryant, B. L. Munday, and M. L. Kent. 2004. Phylogeny of the multivalvulidae (Myxozoa : Myxosporea) based on comparative ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Journal of Parasitology 90 (3):618-622.

Zrzavy, J. 2001. The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia Parasitologica 48:81-103.

Zrzavy, J. and V. Hypsa. 2003. Myxozoa, Polypodium, and the origin of the Bilateria: The phylogenetic position of "Endocnidozoa" in light of the rediscovery of Buddenbrockia. Cladistics 19(2):164-169.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Zschokkella lophii
Location Norway
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Ivan Fiala
Life Cycle Stage Spore
ToL Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 23.5.2008 Ivan Fiala
About This Page

Ivan Fiala
Faculty of Sciences, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Ivan Fiala at

Page: Tree of Life Myxozoa. Authored by Ivan Fiala. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Fiala, Ivan. 2008. Myxozoa. Version 14 June 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Myxozoa/2460/2008.06.14 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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