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CharacteristicsThe Ponerini may be paraphyletic (i.e. may include Thaumatomyrmex) but are characterized by the following apomorphies (Bolton 2003):
- Median portion of clypeus narrowed posteriorly, narrowly inserted between frontal lobes as a slender triangle or linear strip
- Antennal sockets closely approximated
- Inner borders of frontal lobes very closely approximated mediodorsally on head or confluent for most or all of their length (often separated merely by a sulcus)
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
Bolton, B. and W. L. Brown, Jr. 2002. Loboponera gen. n. and a review of the Afrotropical Plectroctena genus group. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Entomology Series) 71: 1-18.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1963. Characters and synonymies among the genera of ants. Part 3. Some members of the tribe Ponerini. Breviora 190: 1-10.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., E. S. Ayensu, and W. D. Duckworth (eds). Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: a Comparative Review: 350 pp. Washington, D. C.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1976. Contributions towards a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part 6. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section A. Introduction, subtribal characters, genus Odontomachus. Studia Entomologica (N.S.) 19: 67-171.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Taylor, R. W. 1967. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 13: 1-112.
Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
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- First online 20 March 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Ponerini. Version 20 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ponerini/22398/2004.03.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/