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Containing group: Hexapoda


Especially common in woodland humus, found to over 10 inches deep in the soil. Densities have been measured at over 90,000 specimens per square meter in a German forest (Krauss and Funke, 1999). May feed on fungi. 4-8 Families (3-5 in North America), 500 Species (20 in North America)

protos - first , oura- tail.


Derived characteristics: Other characteristics:

Other Names for Protura


Berlese, A. 1909. Monografia dei Myrientomata. Redia 6: 1-182.

Bernard, E. C. 1985. Two new species of Protura (Insecta) from North America. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 98:72-80.

Copeland, T. P. 1978. A new genus and two new species of Eosentomoidea (Protura: Eosentomidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 80(4):473-484.

Ewing, H. E. 1940. The Protura of North America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 33:495—551.

Francois, J. 1996. Thoracic skeleton and musculature of Protura. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 32:233-249.

Francois, J., R. Dallai, et al. 1992. Cephalic anatomy of Sinentomon erythranum Yin (Protura: Sinentomidae). International Journal Of Insect Morphology And Embryology 21(3):199-213.

Imadaté, G. 1974. Fauna Japonica Protura (Insecta). Keigaku, Tokyo. 351 pp.

Janetschek, H. 1970. Handbuch der Zoologie. Eine Naturgeschichte der Stämme des Tierreiches. 2nd ed., Band IV, 2. Haelfte, Teil 2/3; Spezielles, Protura. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. 72 pp.

Krauss, J., W. Funke. 1999. Extraordinary high density of Protura in a windfall area of young spruce plants. Pedobiologia, 433:44-46.

Nosek, J. 1973. The European Protura: Their Taxonomy, Ecology and Distribution with Keys for Determination. Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland. 346 pp.

Nosek, J. 1977. A new genus and six new species of Protura from Alaska (Protura:Acerentomidae, Eosentomidae). Entomol. Scand. 8:271-284.

Nosek, J. and D. Keith McE. Kevan. 1978. Key and diagnoses of proturan genera of the world. Annot. Zool. Bot. Bratislava 122:1-54.

Nosek, J. and D. Keith McE. Kevan. 1984. A species of Acerentomidae (Protura) new to Canada. Rev. Entomol. Que. 29:55-61.

Szeptycki, A. 1985. Polish Protura. 111. Eosentomon bohemicum Rusek and related species, 1966. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 55:531—574.

Szeptycki, A. 2002. The taxonomy of Protura - present status and future problems. Pedobiologia 46:209-214.

Szeptycki, A. and E. Christian. 2001. Vindobonella leopoldina gen. n., sp n. from Austria (Protura : Acerentomidae s. l.). European Journal of Entomology 98:249-255.

Szeptycki, A. and W. M. Weiner. 1997. Najtentulus silvestris, gen n, sp n (Protura: Acerentomidae) from the Western Europe. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 33:19-27.

Tuxen, S. L. 1931. Monographie der Proturen. 1. Morphologie nebst Bemerkungen über Systematik and Ökologie. Z. Morphol. Ökol. Tiere 22:671-720.

Tuxen, S. L. 1949. Über den Lebenszyklus und die postembryonale Entwicklung zweier dänisher Proturengattungen. K. Dan. Vidensh. Selsk. Biol. Skr. 6(3):1-50.

Tuxen, S. L. 1963. Phylogenetical trends in the Protura. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 1:277-310.

Tuxen, S. L. 1964. The Protura. A Revision of the Species of the World with Keys for Determination. Hermann, Paris. 360 pp.

Tuxen, S. L. 1984. Brasilidia and a new genus and species of Protura (Insecta) from Argentina. Together with an improvised key to Acerentomidae. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol 21:283-295.

Tuxen, S. L. 1986. Protura (Insecta). Fauna of New Zealand 9. 52 pp.

Yin, W.-Y. 1965. Studies on Chinese Protura. 11. A new family of the suborder Eosentomoidea. Acta Entomol. Sin. 14(2):186-195.

Yin, W.-Y. 1983. Grouping the known genera of Protura under eight families with keys for determination. Contributions of the Shanghai Institute of Entomology 3:151-163.

Yin, W.-Y. 1984. A new phylogeny of Protura with approach to its origin and systematic position. Scientia Sinica. Series B 27:149-160.

Yin, W.-Y. 1999. Fauna Sinica. Arthropoda. Protura. Science Press, Beijing.

Yin, W.-Y., R. Dallai, and L. Z. Xue. 1989. Sperm evolution in Protura. Pages 195-198 in Proceedings of the 3rd International Seminar on Apterygota. University of Siena.

Yin, W.-Y. and L. Z. Xue. 1993. Comparative spermatology of Protura and its significance on Proturan systematics. Scientia Sinica. Series B 36:575-586.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Protura
Location USA: North Carolina: Durham
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 2004 David R. Maddison
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Protura. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Protura/8203/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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