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Zygentoma, Silverfish and Firebrats

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taxon links [down<--]Insecta Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Insecta


Under bark, litter, caves, ant nests, deserts, etc. Omnivorous. 4 Families (3 in North America), 370 Species (in North America)

Oligocene to Recent. Lepidotrichidae more widespread in early deposits than currently.



Other Names for Thysanura


Delany, M. J. 1954. Thysanura and Diplura. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Vol. 1, No. 2. Royal Entomological Society, London. pp. 1-7.

Denis, J. 1949. Ordre des Thysanoures. Pp. 209-275 in P.-P. Grassé (ed.). Traité de Zoologie, Vol. 9. Masson, Paris.

Irish, J. 1989. A new genus of Lepismatidae (Thysanura) inhabiting shrub coppice dunes in the Namib Desert (Namibia). Cimbebasia 11(0):135-144.

Irish, J. and L. F. Mendes. 1988. New genera and species of ultrapsammophilous Namib Desert (Namibia) Lepismatidae (Thysanura). Madoqua 15(4):275-284.

Kaplan, V. G. 1991. Systematics and life forms of silverfishes of the genus Ctenolepisma Esch. (Thysanura, Lepismatidae). Entomological Review 70(8):105-116.

Larink, O. 1997. Apomorphic and plesiomorphic characteristics in Archaeognatha, Monura, and Zygentoma. Pedobiologia 41:3-8.

Lawrence, R. F. 1953. The Biology of the Cryptic Fauna of Forests. A. A . Balkema, Cape Town, South Africa. 408 pp.

Mendes, L. F. 1997. First contribution to the study of the Dominican amber Zygentoma (Insecta). Family Ateluridae. Pedobiologia 41(1-3):40-43.

Mendes, L. F. 1998. Second contribution to the study of the Dominican Republic amber Zygentoma (Insecta): Family Lepismatidae. Can. Entomol. 130(6):899-904.

Paclt, J. 1963. Thysanura fam. Nicoletiidae. Genera Insectorum de P. Wytsman, fasc.216e. 58 pp.

Paclt, J. 1967. Thysanura fam. Lepidotrichidae, Maindroniidae, Lepismatidae. Genera Insectorum de P. Wytsman, fasc. 218e. 86 pp.

Remington, C. L. 1954. The suprageneric classification of the order Thysanura (Insecta). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 47(2):277-286.

Schaller, F. 1968. Soil Animals. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. 144 pp.

Slabaugh, R. E. 1940. A new Thysanuran, and a key to the domestic species of Lepismatidae (Thysanura) found in the United States. Entomol. News 51:95—98.

Smith, G. B. 1998. Review of the Australian Nicoletiinae (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 12(2):135-189.

Staniczek, A. H. 2000. The mandible of silverfish (Insecta: Zygentoma) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera): Its morphology and phylogenetic significance. Zoologischer Anzeiger 239(2):147-178.

Wallwork, J. A. 1970. Ecology of Soil Animals. McGraw-Hill, London, 283 pp.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1941. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Dipluren und Thysanuren der Schweiz. Denkschr. Schweiz. Naturforsch. Ges. 74(2):113-227.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1955. Thysanura. Pages 83-190 in South African Animal Life 2. Almquist and Wiksells Boktryckari AB, Uppsala, Sweden.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1958. Sobre algunos "Nicoletiidae" americancos (Thysanura, Insecta) [On Some American Nicoletiidae]. Acta Zool. Lilloana 16:97-120.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1961. On the surviving representative of the Lepidothrichidae (Thysanura). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 54:621-627.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1963. On Paclt's Nicoletiidae (Thysanura) in Genera Insectorum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 13 6:265-269.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1972. A review of the silverfish (Lepismatidae, Thysanura) of the United States and Caribbean area. Am. Mus. Novit. (2481):1—26.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1973. Description of a new genus of cave thysanuran from Texas (Nicoletiidae, Thysanura, Insecta). Am. Mus. Novit. (2518):1-8.

Zimmerman, E. C. 1948. Insects of Hawaii, Vol. 2: Apterygota to Thysanoptera inclusive. Order Thysanura. Honolulu. Pp. 29-38.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Thermobia domestica
Location Tucson, Arizona, USA
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 2003 David R. Maddison
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Thysanura. Zygentoma, Silverfish and Firebrats. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Thysanura. Zygentoma, Silverfish and Firebrats. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Thysanura/8209/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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