The skin of the mantle sometimes contains large scale-like structures called cushions, tubercules or warts depending on their shape and structure. The function of these structures is uncertain but a protective role seems likely. A hydrodynamic role is also possible in some species such as Pholidoteuthis boschmai (see Roper and Lu, 1990). In addition many other species possess very small tubercules in the skin that are only visible under the microscope. However, sometimes even the large structures are easily overly looked due to their transparency (Fig. A) and their tightly packed arrangement (Fig. B).
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Figure. A - Photograph of tubercules on the mantle of Cranchia scabra, taken by R. Young. B - Scanning electron micrograph of tubercules on the mantle of Pholidoteuthis boschmai, from Roper and Lu, 1990. C - Drawing of the warts on the mantle of Onykia ingens, modified from Pfeffer, 1912. D - Photograph of the dermal cushions of Lepidoteuthis grimaldii, modified from Joubin, 1900. Scanning electron micrograph of the dermal cushions of Pholidoteuthis adami, from Roper and Lu, 1990.
Joubin, L. 1900. Cephalopodes provenant des Campagnes de la Princesse-Alice (1991-1897). Result. Camp. Scient. Monaco, 17: 1-35.
Pfeffer, G. 1912. Die Cephalopoden der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung. 2: 1-815.
Roper, C.F.E. and C.C. Lu 1990. Comparative morphology and function of dermal structures in oceanic squids (Cephalopoda). Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 493: 1-40.
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University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA
Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)
Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls-Sur-Mer, France
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Cephalopod Mantle Armature
Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003).
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