Photosynthetic Organelles in Dinoflagellates Derived from Other Protists

Mona Hoppenrath and Juan F. Saldarriaga

In addition to the peridinin-plastids discussed on the Dinoflagellates branch page, photosynthetic organelles in dinoflagellates include the following:


Dodge, J. D. 1971. A dinoflagellate with both a mesokaryotic and a eukaryotic nucleus. I. Fine structure of the nuclei. Protoplasma 73:145-157.

Dodge, J. D., and R. M. Crawford. 1971. A fine-structural survey of dinoflagellate pyrenoids and food-reserves. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64:105-115.

Elbrächter, M., and E. Schnepf. 1996. Gymnodinium chlorophorum, a new green, bloom-forming dinoflagellate (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) with a vestigial prasinophyte endosymbiont. Phycologia 35:381-393.

Hansen, G., L. Botes, and M. de Salas. 2007a. Ultrastructure and large subunit rDNA sequences of Lepidodinium viride reveal a close relationship to Lepidodinium chlorophorum comb. nov. (= Gymnodinium chlorophorum). Phycol. Res. 55:25-41.

Horiguchi, T., and R. N. Pienaar. 1991. Ultrastructure of a marine dinoflagellate Peridinium quinquecorne Abé (Peridiniales) from South Africa with particular reference to its crysophyte endosymbiont. Bot. Mar. 34:123-131.

Horiguchi, T., and R. N. Pienaar. 1994. Ultrastructure of a new marine sand-dwelling dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium quadrilobatum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) with special reference to its endosymbiotic alga. Europ. J. Phycol. 29:237-245.

Ishida, K., and B. R. Green. 2002. Second- and third-hand chloroplasts in dinoflagellates: phylogeny of oxygen-evolving enhancer 1 (PsbO) protein reveals replacement of a nuclear-encoded plastid gene by that of a haptophyte tertiary endosymbiont. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 99:9294-9299.

Janson, S. 2004. Molecular evidence that plastids in the toxin-producing dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis originate from the free-living cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. Environm. Microbiol. 6:1102-1106.

Koike, K., H. Sekiguchi, A. Kobiyama, K. Takishita, M. Kawachi, K. Koike, and T. Ogata. 2005. A novel type of kleptoplastidy in Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): presence of a haptophyte-type plastid in Dinophysis mitra. Protist 156:225-237.

Nosenko, T., K. L. Lidie, F. M. Van Dolah, E. Lindquist, J. F. Cheng, and D. Bhattacharya. 2006. Chimeric plastid proteome in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23:2026-2038.

Patron, N. J., R. F. Waller, and P. J. Keeling. 2006. A tertiary plastid uses genes from two endosymbionts. J. Mol. Biol. 357:1373-1382.

Schnepf, E., and M. Elbrächter. 1988. Cryptophycean-like double-membrane-bound chloroplast in the dinoflagellate, Dinophysis Ehrenb.: evolutionary, phylogenetic and toxicological implications. Bot. Acta 101:196-203.

Schnepf, E., and M. Elbrächter. 1999. Dinophyte chloroplasts and phylogeny-a review. Grana 38:81-97.

Schweikert, M., and M. Elbrächter. 2004. First ultrastructural investigations of the consortium between a phototrophic eukaryotic endosymbiont and Podolampas bipes (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 43:614-623.

Watanabe, M. M., T. Sasa, S. Suda, I. Inouye, and S. Takishi. 1991. Major carotenoid composition of an endosymbiont in a green dinoflagellate, Lepidodinium viride. J. Phycol. 27:75.

About This Page

Mona Hoppenrath
Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Mona Hoppenrath at and Juan F. Saldarriaga at

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