Hard PinesDavid S. Gernandt and Aaron Liston
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Dvorak, W. S., A. P. Jordon, G. P.Hodge and J. L. Romero. 2000. Assessing evolutionary relationships of pines in the Oocarpae and Australes subsections using RAPD markers. New Forests 20:163-192.
Geada López, G., K. Kamiya, and K. Harada. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Diploxylon pines (subgenus Pinus) based on plastid sequence data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 737-747.
Gernandt, D. S., G. Geada López, S. Ortiz García, and A. Liston. Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon, in press.
Krupkin, A. B., A. Liston, and S. H. Strauss. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of the hard pines (Pinus subgenus Pinus) from chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis. American Journal of Botany 83:489-498.
David S. Gernandt
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to David S. Gernandt at and Aaron Liston at
All Rights Reserved.
Citing this page:
Gernandt, David S. and Aaron Liston. 1996. subgenus Pinus. Hard Pines. Version 01 January 1996 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/subgenus_Pinus/21637/1996.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/