GasteruptiidaeJohn T. Jennings and Andrew R. Deans
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Gasteruptiidae is represented by perhaps 1500-2000 species worldwide (Jennings and Austin 2002), of which about 500 are described. It is divided into three subfamilies:
- Kotujellitinae - fossil subfamily containing two monotypic genera from the Late Cretaceous of northern Siberia and the mid-Early Cretaceous of Mongolia (Basibuyuk et al. 2002)
- Gasteruptiinae - extant subfamily with one genus (Jennings and Austin 2000)
- Hyptiogastrinae - extant subfamily with two genera (Jennings and Austin 2000)
The larvae of Gasteruptiidae are reported to be predators or predator-inquilines of various solitary bees and wasps (e.g. Höppner 1904; Malyshev 1966; Carlson 1979, Jennings and Austin 2004). Various authors have used the term secondary cleptoparasitoid (synonymous with predator-inquiline) (see Valentine and Walker 1991) or ectoparasitoid (synonymous with predator) (see Prinsloo 1985) when referring to gasteruptiids.
Gasteruptiidae is one on the most easily recognised families of parasitic wasps. They are particularly distinctive because of their slender, subclavate metasoma (see title illustrations), the dorsal articulation of the metasoma to the propodeum (see the Evanioidea page), the elongate, neck-like propleura, and expanded hind tibia.
In a recent phylogenetic analysis by Jennings & Austin (2000), Gasteruptiinae (Gasteruption) was shown to be a monophyletic group and the sister to Hyptiogastrinae. Jennings & Austin (2002) examined internal relationships within Hyptiogastrinae and recognised just two genera; Hyptiogaster Kieffer which includes all taxa with an exserted ovipositor, and its sister genus Pseudofoenus Kieffer, representing all remaining Hyptiogastrinae (i.e. those with a short and hidden ovipositor).
Carlson, R. W. 1979. Superfamily Evanioidea. pp. 1109-1118. In Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D., Smith, D. R., and Burks, B. D. (Eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Vol. 1. Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica). (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, DC).
Höppner, H. 1904. Zur biologie der Rubus-bewohner. Allegemeine Zeitschrift fur Entomologie 5/6, 97-103.
Jennings, J. T. and Austin, A. D., 2004. Biology and host relationships of aulacid and gasteruptiid wasps (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea): a review. pp. 187-215. In Rajmohana, K., Sudheer, K., Girish Kumar, P., & Santhosh, S. (Eds.) Perspectives on Biosystematics and Biodiversity. University of Calicut, Kerala, India.
Jennings, J. T. and A. D. Austin. 2002. Systematics and distribution of world hyptiogastrine wasps (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae). Invertebrate Systematics 16: 735-811.
Jennings, J. T. and Austin, A. D. 2000. Higher-level phylogeny of the Aulacidae and Gasteruptiidae (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea). pp. 154-164. In Austin, A. D. & M. Dowton (Eds) The Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Malyshev, S. I. 1966. Genesis of the Hymenoptera and the Phases of Their Evolution. (Transl.) (Methuen & Co.: London).
Prinsloo, G. L. 1985. Order Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, bees, ants). Suborder Apocrita. Section Parasitica. pp. 404-406. In Scholtz, C. H., and Holm, E. (Eds.), Insects of Southern Africa (Butterworths: Durban).
Valentine, E. W. and Walker, A. K. 1991. Annotated catalogue of New Zealand Hymenoptera. DSIR Plant Protection Report No. 4.
John T. Jennings
University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia
Andrew R. Deans
Department of Entomology, NC State University
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to John T. Jennings at and Andrew R. Deans at
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- First online 04 October 2004
- Content changed 22 May 2006
Citing this page:
Jennings, John T. and Andrew R. Deans. 2006. Gasteruptiidae. Version 22 May 2006. http://tolweb.org/Gasteruptiidae/23535/2006.05.22 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/