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Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) Tsuchiya & Okutani, 1988

Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) felis McGowan and Okutani 1968

Kotaro Tsuchiya and Richard E. Young
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Containing group: Abraliopsis

Introduction

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Figure. Ventral view of A. felis, 35 mm ML, preserved. Photograph by R. Young.

A. felis, the only member of the subgenus Boreabraliopsis, shows strong similarities and dissimilarities with members of the subgenus Abraliopsis. The following table compares some of the main features:
  A.(Boreabraliopsis) felis
 A. (Abraliopsis) spp.
Scattered photophore pattern, head and mantle.
Yes
Yes
Size of large ventral:dorsal club hooks
~3:1
~3:1
Spermatangia receptacles 
Dorsal colllar only
Dorsal colllar only
Club keel
No
Yes
Carpal flap
No
Yes
Dorsal flap on hectocotylus
Large (~= ventral flap)
Absent to small (0 - 1/3 ventral flap)
Length of arms IV
Small (40-65%  of ML)
Moderate to large (~70-100% of ML)
Fin width
Small (70-83% of ML) Moderate to large (~90-110% of ML)
Funnel-groove photophore pattern
Simple Pattern: (red only)
Moderate Pattern: (red, blue, cyan)

A. felis is the only cool-temperate species in the genus Abraliopsis. It is found in the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone and the California Current.

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Figure. Ventral view of A. felis, 41 mm ML. Drawing from Young (1972).

Characteristics

In addition to familial characters (listed on the Enoploteuthidae page) and generic characters (listed on the Abraliopsis page), Abraliopsis felis has:
  1. Tentacle clubs
    1. Two series of hooks on manus; ventral hooks moderately larger (in a relative sense) than dorsal hooks.
    2. Carpal flap absent; aboral keel short, narrow.
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      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of A. felis, 40 mm ML, off Southern California. Drawing from Young (1972).

  2. Arms
    1. Arms IV relatively short; ALI IV = 40-65.
    2. Arms I-III with 15 to 20 hooks and 12-26 suckers. 
    3. Arms IV (non-hectocotylus) with13-15 hooks.
    4. Large distal suckers with about 7-10 slender teeth on distal half of inner ring.

  3. Hectocotylus
    1. Hectocotylus, right arm IV (occasionally both arms IV), with two subequal-sized offset flaps: proximal flap on ventral margin, distal flap on dorsal margin. 
    2. Arm with 10-12 small hooks; hook series terminates proximal to dorsal flap.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of arms of A. felis, off Southern California. Top - Hectocotylus showing extend of dorsal and ventral flaps, 38 mm ML. Photograph by R. Young. Bottom - Both ventral arms,  41 mm ML. Note the lack of membranes on the left arm IV. Drawing from Young (1972).

  4. Head
    1. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  5. Integumental Photophores
    1. Ventral mantle and head with scattered arrangement of integumental organs.
  6. Measurements and counts (from Young, 1972):
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    Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Behavior

The photograph below appears to show the tentacles of A. felis locked together while swimming but not attempting to catch prey. The feature of locking of tentacles together, unrelated to feeding, appears to be common among many oegopsid squids judging from MBARI photographs.
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Figure. Posterolateral view of A. felis taken in situ at 362 m from an ROV in Monterey Canyon. © 2013 MBARI.

Distribution

Vertical Distribution

In the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone, this species were occurred abundantly between 0-50m during night.

Off California, A. felis was captured, using open nets, primarily between 300-600 m during the day and in the upper 100 m at night (Roper and Young, 1975).

Geographical Distribution

A. felis is the only cool-temperate species in the genus Abraliopsis. Its distribution extends from the northern Northwest Pacific at 145° E along the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone, eastward to northwestern coast of America, and in the California Current southward to northern Baja California (Young, 1972).

Other Names for Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) felis McGowan and Okutani 1968

References

Tsuchiya, K. 1993. Distribution and zoogeography of the family Enoploteuthidae in the Northwest Pacific. In: Okutani, T., ODor, R. K. and Kubodera, T. (eds.) 1993. Recent advances in fisheries biology (Tokai University Press. Tokyo). pp. 571-585.

Okutani, T. and McGowan, J.A. 1969. Systematics, Distribution, and abundance ofthe epiplanktonic squid (Cephalopoda, Decapoda) larvae of the California Current. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr., 14:1-90.

Roper, C. F. E. and R. E. Young. 1975. Vertical distribution of pelagic cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 209: 1-51.

Young, R.E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the sea off southern California. Smiths. Contr. Zool., 97:1-159.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) felis
Location Monterey Bay Canyon, Northeast Pacific at 36.6N, 122.1W.
Comments Image courtesy of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). You must obtain permission from MBARI to use this photo; please contact pressroom@mbari.org for further information
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
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Copyright © 2011 MBARI
About This Page


Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Page: Tree of Life Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) Tsuchiya & Okutani, 1988. Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) felis McGowan and Okutani 1968. Authored by Kotaro Tsuchiya and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tsuchiya, Kotaro and Richard E. Young. 2015. Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) Tsuchiya & Okutani, 1988. Abraliopsis (Boreabraliopsis) felis McGowan and Okutani 1968. Version 11 October 2015 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Abraliopsis_%28Boreabraliopsis%29_felis/19686/2015.10.11 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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