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Oegopsida Orbigny, 1845

Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione
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taxon links [up-->]Onychoteuthidae [up-->]Brachioteuthidae [up-->]Enoploteuthid families [up-->]Histioteuthid families [up-->]Lepidoteuthid families [up-->]Cycloteuthidae [up-->]Neoteuthidae [up-->]Cranchiidae [up-->]Thysanoteuthidae [up-->]Gonatidae [up-->]Ommastrephidae [up-->]Architeuthidae [up-->]Chiroteuthid families [down<--]Decapodiformes Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Decapodiformes

Introduction

Among cephalopods, oegopsid squids dominate the pelagic, oceanic environment. Diversity at the family and generic levels is very high with 24 families and 69 genera. Although pelagic, some species are consistently associated with and some occasionally sit on the ocean floor.

Diagnosis

Decapodiforms ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Suckers without circularis muscles.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular club usually with carpal (= proximal) locking-apparatus.
    2. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of the club base of Cycloteuthis serventyi. The red line encircles the suckers and knobs of the carpal locking-apparatus. Drawing modified from Young and Roper (1969).

    3. Suckers without circularis muscles (see Sepioidea page).

  3. Buccal crown
    1. Buccal supports lack suckers.

  4. Head
    1. Head without tentacle pockets.
    2. Eyes without corneal membranes covering lenses.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Dorsal view of the head of Pyroteuthis addolux with the protruding eye lenses directly exposed to sea water. Photograph by R. Young.

  5. Funnel
    1. Funnel without lateral adductor muscles.

  6. Mantle
    1. Mantle locking-apparatus, with rare exceptions, reaches anterior mantle margin.

  7. Fins
    1. Fins usually joined posteriorly and usually without posterior lobes.
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      Figure. Ventral view of mantle and fins of Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini, 175 mm ML, Mar-Eco cruise, R/V G. O. SARS, North Atlantic. Photograph by R. Young.

  8. Shell
    1. Shell a gladius.

  9. Viscera
    1. Gills with branchial canal.
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Diagramatic cross-section through gills. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23).

    2. Oviducts paired.
    3. Females without accessory nidamental glands.

  10. Eggs
    1. Eggs in pelagic egg masses.

Comments

Comparisons of the major groups of the Oegopsida

Buccal connective to arms IV Funnel locking-cartilage Carpal locking-apparatus Gladius conus Anterior fin attachment
Architeuthidae Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Mantle
Brachioteuthidae Ventral Straight Yes/No 2° conus Gladius
Chiroteuthid families Ventral Variable, usually oval, often with knobs No 2° conus Gladius
Cranchiidae Ventral Fused Yes 2° conus /No Gladius/Mantle
Cycloteuthidae Ventral Triangular Yes 2° conus /No Gladius
Enoploteuthid families Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Gonatidae Ventral Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Histioteuthidae families Dorsal Straight Yes No Gladius
Lepidoteuthidae families Ventral Straight No 2° conus Gladius
Neoteuthidae Dorsal Straight Yes 1° conus Mantle
Ommastrephidae Dorsal Inverted T Yes/No 1° conus Gladius
Onychoteuthidae Ventral Straight Yes 1° conus Gladius
Thysanoteuthidae Ventral Lazy T Yes No Mantle

A key to the families of the Decapodiformes can be found here.

 

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Pyroteuthis margaritifera, Promachoteuthis sp., Magnapinna ?, Helicocranchia pfefferi, Joubiniteuthis portieri, Onychoteuthis sp., Todarodes sagittatus
Acknowledgements J. portieri photograph by Frank Parish; Magnapinna (?) photograph from N.U.R.C., others photographed by R. Young.
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 2004
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Page: Tree of Life Oegopsida Orbigny, 1845. Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Michael Vecchione. 2004. Oegopsida Orbigny, 1845. Version 18 August 2004 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Oegopsida/19407/2004.08.18 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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