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Abraliopsis sp. P

Lourdes Burgess and Richard E. Young
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Containing group: Abraliopsis (Pfefferiteuthis)

Introduction

Abraliopsis sp. P is found in the tropical Pacific. It is a fairly large species for an Abraliopsis, with males reaching at least 31 mm ML and females at least 40 mm ML. It is very similar to the sympatric Abraliopsis sp. A except, primarily, for the structure of the tentacular club.

Brief diagnosis:

An Abraliopsis (Pfefferiteuthis)  ...

Characteristics

In addition to familial characters (listed on the Enoploteuthidae page) and generic characters (listed on the Abraliopsis page), Abraliopsis sp. P has:
  1. Arms
    1. Arms with two series of hooks and arms I-III with two series of small suckers at tip; suckers more numerous on arms I and least numerous on arms III.
    2. Arms IV longer in males than females.
    3. Males with right arm IV hectocotylized and left arm IV highly modified.
      1. Ventral flap of hectocotylus extends from 5th pair of hooks to base of enlarged arm-tip photophores. Ventral flap bilobed with proximal lobe about twice as high as distal lobe.
      2. Dorsal flap of hectocotylus extends from most distal hook, becomes abruptly reduced in height, continues distally as low ridge.
      3. Trabeculae of hectocotylus present on both margins opposite hooks; membrane between trabeculae low or absent in more proximal and distal trabeculae.
      4. Left arm IV with enlarged ventral protective membrane extending from 2nd pair of hooks nearly to tip of arm. Up to 24 large trabeculae present, up to 2.5 mm long. trabeculae slender, elongate, connected by thin, heavily pigmented membrane. Dorsal protective membrane with short trabeculae and low membrane.
      5. Bases of arms IV and trabeculae with numerous conical tubercules.
      6. Left arm IV with longer and more numerous hooks than right arm IV; hooks on both arms differ remarkably in size and arrangement; in some areas dorsal hooks opposite smaller ventral hooks and vice versa.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral views of arms IV of Abraliopsis sp. P, paratype, mature male, 28 mm ML, central Equatorial Pacific. Photograph by R. Young.

    4. Arms I-III with protective membranes on ventral margins, largest on arms III. Dorsal margins with short, stubby trabeculae without membranes except at distal ends of arms.
    5. Arms III in males with first 1-4 proximal hook of dorsal series much larger than their ventral counterparts. First proximal hook of ventral series equal to or smaller than subsequent hook of same series.
    6. Arms IV in females with stubby trabeculae on both margins and absent distally.
    7. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral views of arms of Abraliopsis sp. P, paratype, mature male, 28 mm ML, central Equatorial Pacific. Relative sizes of arms not maintained. Note that the basal sucker of arm III (male only), ventral series (arrow) is smaller, not larger, then the next sucker in the series, an important difference with Abraliopsis sp. A. Photographs by R. Young.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club keel slightly narrower than width of dactylus; extends from proximal end of base of most distal hook of dorsal series to terminal pad.
    2. Carpal flap extends from opposite carpal area to first ventral hook.
    3. Carpal pad with 4-5 (rarely 6) suckers and pads.
    4. Manus with up to 4 pairs of hooks; largest ventral hook over 3 x height of dorsal counterpart.
    5. Dactylus with 10-11 diagonal rows in four series. Sucker rings smooth, with wide aperatures.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of Abraliopsis sp. P., paratype, mature male, 28 mm ML, central Equatorial Pacific. Note the shape of the largest hook. Photograph by R. Young.

  3. Photophores
    1. Ocular photophores: Five ocular photophores; end members about 2x diameter of central photophore; middle three photophores very nearly the same size.
    2. Integumental photophores: 3 series on ventral head, 6 on ventral mantle.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Ventral view of Abraliopsis sp. P, mature male, 26 mm ML, central equatorial Pacific. Left - Photograph of the preserved squid. Right - Outline drawing from the photograph with all integumental photophores represented by colored dots.  Red dots - Comples photophores. Blue dots - Non-complex photophores. Images by R. Young.

      Detailed information on the integumental photophores can be found here.

  4. Viscera
    1. Spermatangia receptacles: Three receptacles present; two dorsal-collar pockets and one stellate pocket.
    2. Spermatophore:
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. View of the spermatophore (7 mm long) of Abraliopsis sp. P with enlarged insert of oral end, mature male, 28 mm ML, central Equatorial Pacific. Photograph by R. Young

  5. Measurements and counts:
      CHG 89, sta 29
    TC 44, sta. 18
    TC 44, sta. 56
    TC 44, sta. 56 
    CHG 89, sta 15 
    HMS 47, sta. 51
    Sex
    Male
    Female (mated)
    Female (mated) Male (mature)
    Male (mature) Male
    Mantle length
    31
    34
    40
    25
    28
    28
    Head width index
    36
    32
    28
    36
    43
    29
    Fin Length index
    71
    71
    75
    -
    75
    71
    Fin width index
    90
    94
    90
    -
    93
    104
    Arm Length index (R/L):
    I
    48/-
    -/47
    45/-
    44/-
    46/-
    54 /-
    II
    55/-
    53/-
    48/-
    56/-
    54/-
    68/-
    III
    48/-
    53/-
    50/-
    52/-
    50/-
    61/-
    IV
    55/68
    56/62
    58/63
    56/64
    61/68
    71/93
    No. arm hooks, R/L; (suckers):
    I
    20/-; (22)
    17/-; -
    18/-; (22)
    18/-; (24)
    20/-; -
    19/-; -
    II
    26/-; (12)
    20/-; (7)
    21/-; (12)
    21/-; (14)
    24/-; -
    21/-; -
    III
    24/-; (10)
    20/-; (6)
    21/-; (10)
    20/-; (19)
    22/-; -
    26/-; -
    IV
    31/34
    24/25
    26/29
    27/27
    31/36
    36/43
    Club length index (R/L)
    19
    24/24
    23/-
    24/-
    21/-
    25/-
    Club hooks (D/V)(R:L)
    4/2/-
    3/4; 3/4
    4/4
    2/4; -
    3/3
    -
    Carpal suckers (R/L)
    5/-
    4/4
    5/-
    5/-
    6/-
    5/-

Comments

More details of the description can be seen here.

Abraliopsis sp. P is very close to Abraliopsis sp. A, Abraliopsis falco and Abraliopsis atlantica. However, A. sp. P and A. sp. A have broadly overlapping distributions. They are separated primarily by features of the tentacular club: A. sp. P with large keel and carpal flap; species with A small keel (short and low) and without a carpal flap. In additionm Abraliopsis sp. P also differs from A. sp. A in lacking an enlarged basal hook on arm III, ventral series, of males. There is also a difference in the size and shape of the largest hooks on the club between these two species.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Comparison of the club hook size and shape between Abraliopis sp. A and sp. P, side view, all with same magnification. Photographs by R. Young.

The largest hooks of A. sp. P are longer (measured from the base, around the curvature, to the tip of the claw) than those of A. sp. A and the tips of their claws are further removed from the hook shaft. Note that smaller hooks of the ventral series are very similar in the two species although the claw in A. sp. A is more strongly recurved. 

Comparisons of all species in the subgenus can be found on the Abraliopsis (Pfefferiteuthis) page.

Distribution

Abraliopsis sp. P is known from the Tropical Central Pacific south of the Hawaiian Islands from about 12°N to 12°S latitude and from about 135° W to 168°W.
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. The white dots are localities where Abraliopsis sp. P has been captured. The background map is from Google earth.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Abraliopsis sp. P
Location Central Equatorial Pacific at 053'S, 15758'W
Specimen Condition Preserved
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage Mature
View Ventral
Size 26 mm ML
Collector Thomas A. Clarke
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
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University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Page: Tree of Life Abraliopsis sp. P. Authored by Lourdes Burgess and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Burgess, Lourdes and Richard E. Young. 2013. Abraliopsis sp. P. Version 03 November 2013 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Abraliopsis_sp._P/144275/2013.11.03 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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