Heterochroa currently viewed as a subjective junior synonymAndrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
The genus Adelpha is a diverse radiation of neotropical limenitidines. Many are brown with orange forewing patches and white stripes, and it is suggested that there is mimicry among geographically sympatric species. The genus has been revised recently by Willmott (2003a, b). Although Willmott recognizes a number of groups based on similarity of wing patterns, only those species groups that appear as clades in his phylogenetic analysis are indicated here.
Two additional species of Adelpha were recently split out of the widespread "California sister," Adelpha bredowii (now recognized as a Mexican endemic) by Prudic et al. (2008).
The tree shown is based on the phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters by Willmott (2003), using successive approximations weighting (his Fig. 8). Adelpha californica (from California and the Pacific Northwest) and Adelpha eulalia (ranging from southwestern U. S. to Guatemala) have been added to the tree in the positions indicated by Prudic et al. (2008).
Lamas G ed. 2004. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.
Prudic, K. L., Warren, A. D. & Llorente Bousquets, J. 2008 Molecular and morphological evidence reveals three species within the California sister butterfly, Adelpha bredowii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae). Zootaxa 1819.
Willmott KR. 2003a. Cladistic analysis of the neotropical butterfly genus Adelpha (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), with comments on the subtribal classification of Limenitidini. Syst. Ent. 28: 279-322.
Willmott KR. 2003b. The genus Adelpha: its systematics, biology and biogeography (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidini). Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, FLA.
Willmott KR, and Hall JPW. 1995. Two new species of Adelpha from eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera 6: 106-109.
Willmott KR, and Hall JPW. 1999. Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorean Adelpha, with the description of two new species and seven new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera 10: 1-17.
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at
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- First online 08 November 2006
- Content changed 18 July 2008
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2008. Adelpha currently viewed as a subjective junior synonym. Version 18 July 2008 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Adelpha/70382/2008.07.18 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Heterochroa