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Carinariidae Blainville 1818

Roger R. Seapy
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taxon links [up-->]Pterosoma [up-->]Carinaria [up-->]Cardiapoda [down<--]Pterotracheoidea Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Pterotracheoidea

Introduction

The bodies of carinariids, like those of pterotracheids, are greatly enlarged by comparison with the microscopic atlantids. Also like the pterotracheids, the body in most species is elongated and cylindrical, and is divisible into three regions (proboscis, trunk and tail). A reduced shell is present, growing out of the larval shell after metamorphosis. The adult shell is either cap-shaped, covering the viscera, gonads, heart and gills (Carinaria and Pterosoma) or is microscopic, modified only slightly from the larval shell, and embedded dorsally in the visceral nucleus (Cardiapoda).  A fin sucker is present in both sexes (with the exception of Cardiapoda richardi, which lacks a sucker in females) and the size of the sucker relative to the swimming fin is very small in comparison with the atlantids.

Brief Diagnosis

Heteropod molluscs with:

Characteristics

  1. Body morphology
    1. Body elongate and basically cylindrical, except in Pterosoma which has a  broad and disc-shaped trunk (see title illustration)
    2. Like in pterotracheids, body divided into proboscis, trunk and tail regions
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      Figure.  Body regions in Carinaria japonica. ©

    3. Visceral nucleus dorsal and stalked (see image of Carinaria galea below)
  2. Shell
    1. Adult shell macroscopic in Carinaria (cap-shaped) and Pterosoma (flattened), covering the viscera and gills; microscopic in Cardiapoda, embedded in dorsal tissues of visceral nucleus
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Stalked visceral nucleus and shell in Carinaria galea (left) and Pterosoma planum (right).  In the left image, the digestive gland is dark brown and testis is pink. ©



      Figure. Drawings of the microscopic adult shell in Cardiapoda placenta, viewed from the right side and aperture. Following metamorphosis, the larval shell becomes the protoconch, while the added small adult shell is the teleoconch.  Shell diameter (left image) about 0.8 mm. Drawings modified from Tesch (1949).

    2. Protoconch located at apex of adult shell (teleoconch) in Carinaria and Pterosoma
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Protoconch located at apex of adult shell in Carinaria galea (left) and Pterosoma planum (right). ©

    3. Larval shell globular; umbilicus open with radiating striae; aperture oval with smooth outer lip
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Larval shell of Carinaria galea. Shell viewed from right side, left side, and aperture, respectively. Note the striae radiating from the umbilicus (middle image) and the operculum inside the shell aperture (right image). Scale bar = 250 µm (applies to all images). ©

  3. Swimming fin and sucker
    1. Fin sucker small and located on the posteroventral margin of the swimming fin; present in both sexes
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      Figure. Swimming fin and fin sucker in male Carinaria japonica. Penial appendage and penis dorsal to swimming fin. ©

  4. Radula
    1. Shape broadly triangular, with a relative low and limited number of tooth rows (34-44)
    2. Central (rachidian) tooth broad with a low base, three cusps, and  prominent posterolateral processes
    3. Lateral teeth with a small, curved cusp on the inner accessory plate
    4. Marginal teeth monocuspid
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      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Radula of Carinaria lamarcki. Left: low magnification view (scale bar = 200 µm. Right: high magnfication view (scale bar = 20 µm). © G. Richter.

Comments

Most species are in the genus Carinaria; Pterosoma is monotypic and there are two species of Cardiapoda. The genera can be distinguished by the following characters:

Genus Shell size and shape
Shell location
Carinaria Macroscopic; cap-shaped, laterally compressed
Covers the tall, stalked visceral nucleus
Pterosoma Macroscopic; flattened, oblong in dorsal view
Covers the low, stalked visceral nucleus
Cardiapoda Microscopic; adult shell shield-shaped extension of the larval shell
Imbedded in dorsal tissues of the visceral nucleus

References

Lalli, C. M. and R. W. Gilmer. 1989. Pelagic snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod snails. Stanford University Press, Stanford. 259 pp.

Richter, G. and R. R. Seapy. 1999. Heteropoda, pp. 621-647. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Seapy, R. R. and C. Thiriot-Quiévreux. 1994. Veliger larvae of Carinariidae (Mollusca: Heteropoda) from Hawaiian waters. Veliger 37: 336-343.

Tesch, J. J. 1949. Heteropoda. Dana Report 34, 53 pp., 5 plates.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Carinaria japonica
Location Hawaiian waters
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage adult
View right side
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
Scientific Name Cardiapoda richardi
Location Sargasso Sea
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Female
Life Cycle Stage adult
View ventral
Copyright © L. Madin
Scientific Name Pterosoma planum
Location Hawaiian waters
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage adult
View ventro-lateral
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright ©
About This Page


California State University, Fullerton, California, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Roger R. Seapy at

Page: Tree of Life Carinariidae Blainville 1818. Authored by Roger R. Seapy. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Seapy, Roger R. 2007. Carinariidae Blainville 1818. Version 05 December 2007 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Carinariidae/28733/2007.12.05 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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