Filippovia knipovitchiK.S.R. Bolstad, Michael Vecchione, and Richard E. Young
F. knipovitchi reaches a size of at least 450 mm ML (Kubodera et al., 1998) and is found in circumpolar Antarctic waters.
An onychoteuthid ...
- with smooth skin (no warts, ridges or welts)
- with no secondary (dorso-lateral) occipital folds or photophores
- with a U-shaped funnel groove (and no Y-shaped ridge)
- with asymmetrical ventral tentacular hooks
- with all arms subequal, or Arms I shortest by ~5% ML
- Club with 10-15 (Kubodera et al., 1998) or 13 (Filippova, 1972) pairs of hooks.
- Long, slender hooks of ventral series have asymmetrical bases (see drawing below). Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Figure. Oral view of tentacular club and large club hook of F. knipovitchi. Drawings from Filippova, 1972.Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Figure. Oral view of tentacular club of F. knipovitchi, 295 mm ML, female. Photograph by R. Young.
- Skin smooth (i.e., no welts or ridges) (photograph of anterolateral mantle skin at right).
- Rhomboidal shape, not drawn out into a tail.
- Length 50-60% of ML.
- Width ~70% of ML.
- Rostrum short, 1/12th of GL (measured from ventral edge of conus); triangular in cross-section (dorsal surface flat, ventral surface pointed).
- Keel thickened posteriorly.
Except where noted, this description is taken from Filippova (1972). The slender, asymmetrical hooks, smooth skin, homodont radula (see next page) and the rhomboidal fins characterize this species.
F. knipovitchi was originally attributed to the genus Moroteuthis (= Onykia) due to its lack of photophores and secondary occipital folds, the proportions of the gladius, and the rounded funnel groove. However, it also possesses other character states more closely allied with the genera Onychoteuthis, Ancistroteuthis and Notonykia (smooth mantle epidermis, large fins, asymmetrical ventral tentacular hook bases, unicuspid rachidian tooth). These morphological characters, combined with two recent molecular studies (Bonnaud et al., 1998; Wakabayashi et al., 2007) placing F. knipovitchi outside the genus Onykia, caused Bolstad (2010) to separate 'M.' knipovitchi from the true Onykia species, and place it into the new genus Filippovia.
The type locality is near South Georgia Island. This species is found only in Antarctic waters. A map of its distribution can be found here.
Bolstad, K.S.R. 2010. Systematics of the Onychoteuthidae Gray, 1847 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Zootaxa 2696: 186 pp.
Bonnaud, L., P. G. Rodhouse and R. Boucher-Rodoni. 1998. A phylogenetic study of the squid family Onychoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265:1761-1770.
Filippova, J. A. 1972. New data on the squids (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from the Scotia Sea (Antarctic). Malacologia, 11: 391-406.
Kubodera, T., U. Piatkowski, T. Okutani and M.R. Clarke. 1998. Taxonomy and Zoogeography of the Family Onychoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 586: 277-291.
Wakabayashi, T., Kubodera, T., Sakai, M., Ichii, T. & Chow, S. 2007. Molecular evidence for synonymy in the genera Moroteuthis and Onykia and identification of their paralarvae from northern Hawaiian waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87: 959–965.
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to K.S.R. Bolstad at
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- First online 23 June 2003
- Content changed 23 December 2010
Citing this page:
Bolstad, K.S.R., Michael Vecchione, and Richard E. Young. 2010. Filippovia http://tolweb.org/Filippovia_knipovitchi/19973/2010.12.23 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Filippovia knipovitchi . Version 23 December 2010 (under construction).