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Edward E. Schilling
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Containing group: Heliantheae


Blake, S. F. 1918. A revision of the genus Viguiera. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium n.s. 54: 1-205.

Feddema, C. 1971. Re-establishment of the genus Aldama (Compositae-Heliantheae). Phytologia 21: 308-314.

Heiser, C. B., D. M. Smith, S. Clevenger, and W. C. Martin. 1969. The North American sunflowers (Helianthus). Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 22(3) 1-218.

LaDuke, J. C. Revision of Tithonia. Rhodora 84: 453-522.

Panero, J. L. 1982. Systematics of Pappobolus (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monographs 36: 1-195.

Robinson, H. 1981. A revision of the tribal and subtribal limits of the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 51: 1-102.

Schilling, E. E. and C. B. Heiser. 1981. Infrageneric classification of Helianthus (Compositae). Taxon 30: 393-403.

Schilling, E. E. and J. L. Panero. 1991. Evidence for a close relationship between Iostephane and Viguiera (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). American Journal of Botany 78: 1054-1062.

Schilling, E. E. and J. L. Panero. 1996. Relationships in Heliantheae subtribe Helianthinae based on chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis. In Hind, D. J. and H. J. Beentje (eds.) Compositae: Systematics. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Vol. 1: pp. 361-376.

Schilling, E. E. and J. L. Panero. 2002. A revised classification of subtribe Helianthinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). I. Basal lineages. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 65-76.

Spooner, D. M. 1990. Systematics of Simsia (Compositae-Heliantheae). Systematic Botany Monographs 30: 1-90.

Strother, J. L. 1983. Pionocarpus becomes Iostephane (Compositae: Heliantheae): a synopsis. Madrono 30: 34-48.

Yates, W. F. and C. B. Heiser. 1979. Synopsis of Heliomeris. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 88: 364-372.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Tithonia diversifolia
Location cultivated at at Strybing Arboretum, San Francisco, native to Mexico
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Tithonia diversifolia
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2005 Eric in SF
About This Page

Edward E. Schilling
University of Tennessee

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Edward E. Schilling at

Page: Tree of Life Helianthinae. Authored by Edward E. Schilling. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Schilling, Edward E. 2009. Helianthinae. Version 07 October 2009 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Helianthinae/104458/2009.10.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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