Under Construction


Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
taxon links [down<--]Plenitentoria Interpreting the tree
close box

This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

close box
Containing group: Plenitentoria


McFarlane (1964) erected the plectrotarsid subfamily Kokiriinae when he described Kokiria miharo from New Zealand. Subsequently, Ross (1967) raised it to family status and included the Chilean species Rhynchopsyche fusca Schmid (originally described in Brachycentridae) in the new family. Neboiss (1974) described Tanjistomella verna, the first record of the family in Australia; in that work he also referred the New Caledonian genus Mecynostomella Kimmins (originally placed in Sericostomatidae) to Kokiriidae. Neboiss later described 2 more Australasian genera, Taskiria and Taskiropsyche. Flint et al. (1999) considered Rhynchopsyche fusca a junior synonym of Pangullia faziana Navás (originally described in Limnephilidae). Johanson (2003) recently revised Mecynostomella and nearly doubled the described species diversity of Kokiriidae, so that it now consists of 15 species described from New Zealand, New Caledonia, Chile, and Australia. The larvae are predatory, and live in sandy deposits of small streams and lakes. Larval cases are constructed from sand, and are dorsoventrally depressed and flanged around the edge. (From Holzenthal et al., 2007a)

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

This family has been considered by various authors to be closely allied with either limnephiloid or leptoceroid families, in the latter case possibly because of the similarity of the larval cases to those of molannids and some Ceraclea (Leptoceridae). However, the characters proposed by Frania and Wiggins (1997) to support a close relationship with Molannidae have not held up to re-examination (Prather 2002), nor are they corroborated in recent molecular studies (Holzenthal et al. 2007b, Kjer et al. 2001, 2002). (From Holzenthal et al., 2007a)


Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Prather, A.L., and Kjer K.M. 2007a. Order Trichoptera Kirby 1813 (Insecta), Caddisflies. In: Zhang, Z.-Q., and Shear, W.A. (Eds). 2007 Linneaus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa. 1668:639–698.

Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Kjer K.M and Prather, A.L. 2007b. An update on the phylogeny of Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Bueno-Soria, R. Barba-Alvearz and B. Armitage (Eds). Pp. 143-153. The Caddis Press.

Flint, O.S., Jr. (1967) Trichoptera collected by Prof. J. Illies in the Chilean subregion. Beiträge zur Neotropischen Fauna, 5, 45–68.

Johanson, K.A. (2003b) Revision of New Caledonian genus Mecynostomella (Trichoptera, Kokiriidae). Zootaxa, 270, 1–24.

Kjer, K.M., Blahnik, R.J. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2001) Phylogeny of Trichoptera (caddisflies): characterization of signal and noise within multiple datasets. Systematic Biology, 50, 781–816.

Kjer, K.M., Blahnik, R.J. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2002) Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoologica Scripta, 31, 83–91.

McFarlane (1964)

Neboiss, A. (1974) Additions to the family Kokiriidae (Trichoptera). Victorian Naturalist, 91, 175–179.

Prather, A.L. (2002) Phylogenetic analysis of Leptoceroidea and Calamoceratidae, and revisions of the Neotropical genera Banyallarga and Phylloicus (Insecta: Trichoptera). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, 486 pp.

Ross, H.H. (1967) The evolution and past dispersal of the Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology, 12, 169–206.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Pangulia faziana
Location Tregualamu Chile
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Identified By O. Flint Jr.
Life Cycle Stage Adult
View Lateral
Collection NMNH
Collector C & O Flint
Source Collection Barcode of Life Database (BOLD)
About This Page

Ralph W. Holzenthal
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Roger J. Blahnik
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Aysha Prather
Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Karl Kjer
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Ralph W. Holzenthal at , Roger J. Blahnik at , Aysha Prather at , and Karl Kjer at

Page: Tree of Life Kokiriidae. Authored by Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Holzenthal, Ralph W., Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. 2010. Kokiriidae. Version 20 July 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Kokiriidae/141326/2010.07.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box


Page Content

articles & notes



Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page