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Julia Gulka and David P. Mindell
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taxon links Not Monophyletic[down<--]Accipitridae Interpreting the tree
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The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Topology built based on analyses of do Amaral et al. (2009) and Lerner et al. (2008). Based on these findings, Leucopternis is polyphyletic with Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Parabuteo unicinctus, and Buteo, Buteogallus, Harpyhaliaetus species, suggesting the need to reassess taxonomy of these genera. The topology includes only species currently placed in Leucopternis by the IOC World Bird List (Gill and Donsker 2011).
Containing group: Accipitridae


do Amaral, F. R., M. J. Miller, L. F. Silveira, E. Bermingham, and A. Wajntal. 2006. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 10.

do Amaral, F. R., F. H. Sheldon, A. Gamauf, E. Haring, M. Riesing, L. F. Silveira,, and A. Wajntal. 2009. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecologically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 703-715.

Gill, F. and D. Dosker (Eds). 2011. IOC World Bird Names (version 2.9). Available t http://www.worldbirdnames.org. Accessed 25 July 2011.

Lerner, H. R. L., M. C. Klaver and D. P. Mindell. 2008. Molecular phylogenetics of Buteoninae birds of prey (Aves: Accipitridae). The Auk 125:304-315.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Leucopternis albicollis
Location Parque Cóndor, Otavalo, Ecuador
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Gavilán Blanco
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2008 michel gutierrez
About This Page

Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont, USA

David P. Mindell
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Julia Gulka at and David P. Mindell at

Page: Tree of Life Leucopternis. Authored by Julia Gulka and David P. Mindell. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Gulka, Julia and David P. Mindell. 2011. Leucopternis. Version 06 August 2011 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Leucopternis/57838/2011.08.06 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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