Complete

Mastigoteuthis cordiformis Chun, 1908

Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione
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Containing group: Mastigoteuthidae

Introduction

The original description of M. cordiformis is based on a single male squid, 80 mm ML with intact tentacles, taken in the Indian Ocean near Sumatra. It has been subsequently described from Japan (Sasaki, 1929) and the Philippines (Voss, (1963). This is the largest of the mastigoteuthids reaching a size of 100 cm ML (A. Salcedo-Vargas, personnal communication).

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Figure. M. cordiformis. Left - Ventral view of freshly captured squid, 325 mm ML. Photograph by Mark Norman. Right - Ventral view of the holotype, 83 mm ML. Drawing from Chun (1910).

Brief diagnosis:

A mastigoteuthid ...

Characteristics

 
  1. Arms
    1. Arms III much longer than arms I.

  2. Tentacles
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    Figure. Anteroventral view of M. cordiformis, same squid as in title photograph, showing tentacle club emerging. Note large club suckers. Submersible photograph at depth of 1200-1400 m. © Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, Univ. Hawaii, Marc Slattery, P.I.

    1. Proximal club suckers much larger than other club suckers.
    2. Largest proximal suckers 0.5 mm or larger.
    3. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
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      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of M. cordiformis. Note the large suckers at the proximal end. Top - Holotype, 80 mm ML. Photograph by R. Young. Bottom - Large specimen (>30 cm ML), fresh, Australian waters. Photograph by Mark Norman.

  3. Head
    1. Beaks. Description of the beaks can be found here in 2D.
    2. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here in 3D: Lower beak; upper beak.
    3. Funnel pocket absent.

  4. Funnel
    1. Funnel locking-apparatus ear-shaped with tragus and antitragus.

  5. Fins
    1. Fin length (anterior extent to insertion on tail) 75% of ML (Chun, 1910).

  6. Tubercules
    1. Mantle and other skin covered with small, conical tubercules arising from round plaques.
    2. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Left - Ventral view of a portion of the eyelid of M. cordiformis, holotype, 80 mm ML, showing tile-like arrangement of tubercules. Photograph by R. Young. Right - Scanning electron micrograph with an external view of mantle tubercles of M. cordiformis, 87 mm ML, Philippine waters, 14°N, 121°E. The tubercules are very similar to those of M. hjorti. Photograph from Roper and Lu (1990).

      Figure. Left - Histological section through a skin tubercule of M. cordiformis, holotype. Most of the epithelium has been lost except along one flank of the tubercule. Drawing from Chun (1910). Right - Cross-section through a tubercule of M. cordiformis using scanning electron microscopy. Photograph from Roper and Lu (1990).

  7. Photophores and pigmentation
    1. Photophores absent.
    2. Most pigment in densely packed chromatophores.

Comments

More details of the description can be found here.

The descriptions of Chun, Sasaki and Voss contain differences in the shape of the funnel locking-apparatus and the structure of the suckers. The significance of these differences remains to be determined. M. latipinna Sasaki, 1916 (see description under "Species of doubtful validity..." in the Nomenclature section of the family page) is probably a junior synonym of M. cordiformis.

M. cordiformis is most similar to M. hjorti but differs in the absence of ocular photophores and the presence of enlarged proximal club suckers among other features.

Distribution

Type locality: Indian Ocean south of Sumatra at 0°15'N, 98°8'E. Also known from southern Japanese (Sasaki, 1929) and Philippine (Voss, 1963) waters.

References

Chun, C. 1910. Die Cephalopoden. Oegopsida. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Tiefsee Expedition auf dem Dampfer "Valdivia" 1898-1899, 18(1):1-401.

Roper, C.F.E. and C.C. Lu 1990. Comparative morphology and function of dermal structures in oceanic squids (Cephalopoda). Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 493: 1-40.

Sasaki, M. 1929. A Monograph of the Dibranchiate Cephalopods of the Japanese and Adjacent Waters. Journal of the College of Agriculture, Hokkaido Imperial University, 20(supplement):357 pages.

Voss, G. L. 1963. Cephalopoda of the Philippine Islands. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 234: 1-180.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Mastigoteuthis cordiformis
Location Kermadec Archipellago at 34.99S, 179.2W
Comments Submersible photograph
Acknowledgements Marc Slattery, P.I.
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By R. Young
View Dorsolateral
Copyright © Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, Univ. Hawaii
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Page: Tree of Life Mastigoteuthis cordiformis Chun, 1908. Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Michael Vecchione. 2008. Mastigoteuthis cordiformis Chun, 1908. Version 15 September 2008. http://tolweb.org/Mastigoteuthis_cordiformis/19510/2008.09.15 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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