Complete

Myopsida Naef, 1916

Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young
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taxon links [up-->]Loliginidae [up-->]Australiteuthidae [down<--]Decapodiformes Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Decapodiformes

Introduction

Myopsid squids are neritic, often in very shallow water, or upper slope demersal species. Many species are strong swimmers, occur in large schools and are fished commercially for food. The Loliginidae contains many species some of which reach a rather large size (at least 90 cm ML in Loligo forbesii) but those in Pickfordiateuthis, are dwarf species where males may mature at less than 14 mm ML (Brachoniecki, 1996). The Australiteuthidae contains a single species that is also a dwarf with males that mature as small as 17 mm ML (Lu, 2005).

Brief diagnosis:

A decapodiform ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Suckers of arms (and tentacles) with circularis muscles (unknown in Australiteuthidae).

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club without proximal (= carpal) locking-apparatus.
    2. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
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      Figure. Oral view of the tentacular club of Loligo plei, 105 mm ML, preserved. Photograph by R. Young.

  3. Head
    1. Head with tentacle pocket.
    2. Eyes with corneal membranes covering lenses.
    3. Eyes without secondary (= ventral) eyelid.
    4. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Left - Dorsal view of the head of Sepioteuthis sp. (Loliginidae) showing cornea covering lens. Photograph by Mark Norman. Right - Ventrolateral view of the head of Lollicuncula diomedeae showing the absence of a ventral eyelid. Photograph by R. Young.

  4. Funnel
    1. Funnel without lateral adductor muscles.

  5. Mantle
    1. Mantle locking-apparatus extends to mantle edge (except Australiteuthidae).

  6. Shell
    1. Shell a gladius, extending the full length of the mantle.

  7. Viscera
    1. Gills with branchial canal (except Pickfordiateuthis, unknown in Australiteuthis).
    2. Right oviduct absent.
    3. Females with accessory nidamental glands.
    4. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Diagramatic cross-section through gills. Drawing modified from Naef (1921-23).

  8. Eggs
    1. Eggs, where known, attached to substrate.
    2. Embryo with large external yolk sac.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The two families of the Myopsida appear to be closely related. The Australiteuthidae differs from the Loliginidae primarily in the structure of the funnel/mantle locking-apparatus and the position of the mantle component which does not reach the mantle margin. A number of features of phylogenetic importance in the Australiteuthidae, however, are not known: the presence or absence of a branchial canal, an anterior eye pocket, circularis muscles in the suckers, an interstellate connective; the location of spermathecae; the symmetry of the gills; the type and place (pelagic or benthic) of deposition of egg masses and the position of the intestine relative to the cephalic vein and the vena cavae.

References

Brakoniecki, T. F. 1996. A revision of the genus Pickfordiateuthis Voss, 1953 (Cephalopoda; Myopsida). Bull. Mar. Sci., 58: 9-28.

Lu, C. C. 2005. A new family of myopsid squid from Australasian waters (Cepahlopoda: Teuthida). P. 71-82. In: Chotiyaputta, C., E. M. C. Hatfield and C. C. Lu (editors). Cephalopod biology, recruitment and culture. International Cephalopod Symposium and Workshop, 17-21 Feb. 2003. Research Bulletin, Phyuket Marine Biological Center, No. 66, Published by the Center Phuket, Thailand, July 2005, 365 pp.

Naef, A. 1921-1923. Die Cephalopoden. Fauna e Flora del Golfo di Napoli, Monographie 35, Vol I, Parts I and II, Systematik, pp 1-863.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Doryteuthis pealeii
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
View Dorsal
Size 105 mm ML
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
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About This Page


National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Page: Tree of Life Myopsida Naef, 1916. Authored by Michael Vecchione and Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Vecchione, Michael and Richard E. Young. 2008. Myopsida Naef, 1916. Version 21 April 2008. http://tolweb.org/Myopsida/52670/2008.04.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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