PieridaeAndrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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The current hypothesis of relationships for pierid genera is based upon the molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Braby et al. 2006. Taxa not included in that hypothesis are indicated as incertae sedis as indicated by the authors, and the inferred positions of several fossil pierid genera are also indicated.
Pieridae are the sulphurs and whites, medium-sized mostly pale-colored butterflies with a world-wide distribution. There are some 1100 species.
Ackery, P. R., R. de Jong, and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea, and Papilionoidea. Pages 264-300 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.
Braby, M. F. 2005. Provisional checklist of genera of the Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa 832:1–16.
Braby, M., R. Vila, and N. E. Pierce. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea): higher classification and biogeography. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 147(2):239-275.
Bridges, C. A. 1988. Catalogue of Papilionidae and Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Urbana, Illinois: Charles A. Bridges.
Lamas, G. 2004. Pieridae. In: Lamas G, ed. Checklist: Part 4a Hesperioidea–Papilionoidea. In: Heppner JB, ed. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera, Vol. 5A. Gainesville: Association for Tropical Lepidoptera/Scientific Publishers, 99–117.
Pollock, D. D., W. B. Watt, V. K. Rashbrook, and E. V. Iyengar. 1998. Molecular phylogeny for Colias butterflies and their relatives (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91(5):524-531.
Stavenga, D. G., S. Stowe, K. Siebke, J. Zeil, and K. Arikawa. 2004. Butterfly wing colours: scale beads make white pierid wings brighter. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271:1577–1584.
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Page: Tree of Life Pieridae Authored by . Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- Content changed 15 November 2009
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2009. Pieridae http://tolweb.org/Pieridae/12176/2009.11.15 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 15 November 2009 (under construction).