Under Construction



John Harshman
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taxon links [up-->]Dixiphia [Pipra] pipra [up-->]Machaeropterus [up-->]Pipra [up-->]Masius chrysopterus [up-->]Tyranneutes [up-->]Ilicura militaris [up-->]Chiroxiphia [up-->][Pipra] part 2 [up-->]Chloropipo [up-->]Neopelma [up-->]Heterocercus [up-->]Manacus [up-->]Lepidothrix [up-->]Corapipo [up-->]Antilophia Monophyly UncertainMonophyly Uncertain[down<--]Tyranni Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Relationships after Tello et al. (2009), Ohlson et al. (2008), Rêgo et al. (2007).
Containing group: Tyranni

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The traditional genus Pipra is polyphyletic. One of its former members, Pipra pipra, has the available genus name Dixiphia. Other former members may form a clade with Dixiphia and might also be conveniently assigned to that genus; another available name is Ceratopipra (Prum 1992). I avoid the choice, and merely put Pipra in brackets to show that another name is necessary.

Tyranneutes and Neopelma have been considered to belong to Tyrannidae in some classifications.

Other Names for Pipridae


Bostwick, K. S. 2000. Display behaviors, mechanical sounds, and evolutionary relationships of the Club-winged Manakin (Machaeropterus deliciosus). Auk 117(2):465-478.

Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gill, F., Wright, M. & Donsker, D. 2009. IOC World Bird Names (version 2.2). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/ [Accessed 18 Oct 2009].

Ohlson, J., J. Fjeldså, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2008. Tyrant flycatchers coming out in the open: Phylogeny and ecological radiation of Tyrannidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta 37:315-335.

Prum, R. O. 1990. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of display behavior in the neotropical manakins (Aves: Pipridae). Ethology 84: 202-231.

Prum, R. O. 1992. Syringeal morphology, phylogeny, and evolution of the Neotropical manakins (Aves: Pipridae). American Museum of Natural History Novitates 3043: 1-65.

Prum, R. O. 1994. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of alternative social behavior in the manakins (Aves, Pipridae). Evolution 48(5):1657-1675.

Rêgo, P. S., J. Araripe, M. L. V. Marcelliano, I. Sampaio, and H. Schneider. 2007. Phylogenetic analyses of the genera Pipra, Lepidothrix and Dixiphia (Pipridae, Passeriformes) using partial cytochrome b and 16S mtDNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36:565-575.

Snow, D. 2004. Family Pipridae (Manakins). Pages 110–169 in Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 8: Broadbills to Tapaculos. J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and D.A. Christie, eds. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.

Tello, J. G., R. G. Moyle, D. J. Marchese, and J. Cracraft. 2009. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotinga, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics 25:1-39.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Manacus manacus
Location Brazil
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Male
Source White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus)
Copyright © Arthur Grosset
Scientific Name Antilophia bokermanni
Location Chapada do Araripe - Ceará, Brazil
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Antilophia bokermanni_Araripe Manakin
Source Collection Flickr
Copyright © 2007 Ciro Albano
Scientific Name Chiroxiphia caudata
Location Garrafão - Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Acknowledgements Foto que recebeu o 3º lugar no concurso SOS Mata Atlântica 2008
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Behavior Uma cena incrível, a dança dos tangarás, chamada "lekking". A fêmea fica do lado esquerdo, observando a dança, e um dos machos é o "escolhido".
Sex males and female
Source Lekking de Tangarás
Source Collection Flickr
Copyright © 2008 Joao Quental
About This Page

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to John Harshman at

Page: Tree of Life Pipridae. Manakins. Authored by John Harshman. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Harshman, John. 2009. Pipridae. Manakins. Version 28 November 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Pipridae/67995/2009.11.28 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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