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Containing group: Animals


Birstein, V. J. 1989. On the Karyotype of Trichoplax sp. (Placozoa). Biologisches Zentralblatt 108:63-67.

Buchholz, K. and A. Ruthmann. 1995. The mesenchyme-like layer of the fiber cells of Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa), a syncytium. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung Section C 50:282-285.

Dellaporta, S. L., A. Xu, S. Sagasser, W. Jakob, M. A. Moreno, L. W. Buss, and B. Schierwater. 2006. Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax adhaerens supports placozoa as the basal lower metazoan phylum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (U.S.A.) 103(23):8751-8756.

Ender, A. and B. Schierwater. 2003. Placozoa are not derived cnidarians: Evidence from molecular morphology. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(1):130-134.

Grell, K. G. and A. Ruthmann. 1991. Placozoa. Pages 13-28 in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. 2. Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. F. W. Harrison (ed.) New York: Wiley-Liss.

Miller, D. J. and E. E. Ball. 2005. Animal evolution: the enigmatic phylum Placozoa revisited. Current Biology 15(1):26-28.

Ruthmann, A., G. Behrendt, and R. Wahl. 1986. The ventral epithelium of Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa) - cytoskeletal structures, cell contacts and endocytosis. Zoomorphology 106:115-122.

Schierwater. B. 2005. My favorite animal, Trichoplax adhaerens. BioEssays 27:1294-1302.

Schuchert, P. 1993. Trichoplax adhaerens (Phylum Placozoa) has cells that react with antibodies against the neuropeptide Rfamide. Acta Zoologica 74:115-117.

Syed, T. and B. Schierwater. 2002. The evolution of the Placozoa: a new morphological model. Senckenbergiana lethaea 82:259–270.

Thiemann, M. and A. Ruthmann. 1988. Trichoplax adhaerens Schulze, F. E. (Placozoa) - The formation of swarmers. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung Section C 43:955-957.

Thiemann, M. and A. Ruthmann. 1989. Microfilaments and microtubules in isolated fiber cells of Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa). Zoomorphology 109:89-96.

Thiemann, M. and A. Ruthmann. 1990. Spherical forms of Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa). Zoomorphology 110:37-45.

Thiemann, M. and A. Ruthmann. 1991. Alternative modes of sexual reproduction in Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa). Zoomorphology 110:165-174.

Ueda, T., S. Koya, and Y. K. Maruyama. 1999. Dynamic patterns in the locomotion and feeding behaviors by the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerence. Biosystems 54:65-70.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Scientific Name Placozoa
Comments Diagram of the external features of a placazoan.
Creator Ivy Livingstone
Copyright © 1995 BIODIDAC
About This Page
Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Placozoa. Version 14 August 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Placozoa/2463/2006.08.14 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org

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