FernsKathleen M. Pryer and Alan R. Smith
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.close box
Pryer, K.M., A.R. Smith, and J.E. Skog. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of extant ferns based on evidence from morphology and rbcL sequences. Amer. Fern J. 85: 205-282.
Smith, A.R. 1995. Non-molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for ferns. Amer. Fern J. 85: 104-122.
Taylor, T.N. and E.L. Taylor. 1993. The biology and evolution of fossil plants. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Kathleen M. Pryer
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Alan R. Smith
University of California, Berkeley, California, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Kathleen M. Pryer at
Page copyright © 1997 Kathleen M. Pryer
All Rights Reserved.
- Content changed 23 December 2008
Citing this page:
Pryer, Kathleen M. and Alan R. Smith. 2008. Ferns. Version 23 December 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ferns/20615/2008.12.23 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/