Under Construction

Taoniinae Pfeffer 1912

Richard E. Young
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taxon links [up-->]Mesonychoteuthis [up-->]Helicocranchia [up-->]Bathothauma [up-->]Egea [up-->]Galiteuthis [up-->]Taonius [up-->]Sandalops [up-->]Liguriella [up-->]Teuthowenia [up-->]Megalocranchia [down<--]Cranchiidae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Cranchiidae

Introduction

The Taoniinae is much more diverse in genera and species than the Cranchiinae.

Brief diagnosis:

A cranchiid ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms IV not hectocotylized in males.

  2. Head
    1. Eyes on stalks in paralarvae and in some juveniles.

  3. Funnel
    1. Funnel not fused to head laterally.

  4. Mantle.
    1. Cartilagenous strips on mantle absent. Cartilagenous tubercules, when present, occur only at funnel and nuchal locking-points.

  5. Photophores
    1. Eyes with one to three photophores of very different sizes and shapes.
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      Figure. Ventral view of a damaged eye of Galiteuthis armata, showing the most common photophore arrangement in the Taoniinae. In preserved squid, the light-guide region becomes opaque causing the medial photophore to look very large with a swollen medial margin. Photograph by M. Vecchione.

  6. Viscera
    1. Stomach larger than caecum.
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      Figure. Anterolateral view of a paralarva of Megalocranchia fisheri, Hawaiian waters. Stalked eyes in which the eye and optic lobe are separated from the brain by a long optic stalk, is unique to the Cranchiidae and are present in young stages of virtually all taoniins. Photograph by R. Young.

Comparison of genera (blank cell = N)

  Fins small, separate, paddle-like Short, lanceolate fins inserting on broadest point on gladius Moderate, lanceolate fins inserting on mantle Long, lanceolate, terminal fins Funnel valve
Tubercules at funnel-mantle fusion
Tubular eyes in juveniles Hooks or hook-like suckers on clubs Three photo-phores on eyeball Photo-phores on viscera Suckers on tentacle stalk in 4 series. Distally only*
Bathothauma Y                   Y*
Helicocranchia Y                    
Sandalops   Y         Y        
Liguriella   Y        Y          
Mesonychoteuthis            Y/N   Y      
Galiteuthis       Y    Y/N   Y      
Taonius       Y    * Y Y      
Teuthowenia     Y      Y     Y   Y
Megalocranchia         Y         Y Y*
Egea     Y   Y            
* May be present in young.
Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Galiteuthis armata
Location Central North Atlantic
Acknowledgements Photograph taken on the MarEco cruise of the R/V G.O. SARS
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
View Side
Size 240 mm ML
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 2004
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Richard E. Young at

Page: Tree of Life Taoniinae Pfeffer 1912. Authored by Richard E. Young. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. 2014. Taoniinae Pfeffer 1912. Version 21 January 2014 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Taoniinae/19545/2014.01.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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