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Therapsida

Mammals and extinct relatives

Classification after Hopson 1991.
Containing group: Synapsida

Other Names for Therapsida

References

Ahlberg, P. E. 1993. Therapsids and transformation series. Nature 361:596-596.

Botha, J., F. Abdala, and R. Smith. 2007. The oldest cynodont: new clues on the origin and early diversification of the Cynodontia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149(3):477492.

Carroll, R.L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Cluver, M.A. 1978. Fossil reptiles of the South African Karoo. Cape Town, South African Museum.

Colbert, E.H. and J.W. Kitching. 1977. Triassic cynodont reptiles from Antarctica. American Museum Novitates 2611:1-30.

Forey, P. L. 1993. Therapsids and transformation series. Nature 361:596-597.

Fox, R. C., G. P. Youzwyshyn, and D. W. Krause. 1992. Post-jurassic mammal-like reptile from the paleocene. Nature 358:233-235.

Fox, R. C., G. P. Youzwyshyn, and D. W. Krause. 1992. Paleocene therapsid debate. Nature 360:540-540.

Gee, H. 1992. By their teeth ye shall know them. Nature 360:529-529.

Grine, F. E. 1997. Dinocephalians are not anomodonts. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:177-183.

Hopson, J. A. 1991. Systematics of the nonmammalian Synapsida and implications for patterns of evolution in synapsids. Pages 635-693 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods. (H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb, eds.) Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London.

Hopson, J. A. 1995. Patterns of evolution in the manus and pes of non-mammalian therapsids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15:615-639.

Hopson J. A. and H. R. Barghusen. 1986. An analysis of therapsid relationships. Pages 83-106 in The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles (P. D. M. Nicholas Hotton III, J. J. Roth, and E. C. Roth, eds.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Hotton, N. III. 1991. The nature and diversity of synapsids: prologue to the origin of mammals. Pages 598-634 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods. (H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb, eds.) Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London.

Kemp, T. S. 1982. Mammal-like reptiles and the origin of mammals. New York, Academic Press.

King, G. M. 1988. Anomodontia. Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology Part 17C. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

Laurin, M. and R. R. Reisz. 1990. Tetraceratops is the oldest known therapsid. Nature 345:249-250.

Laurin, M. and R. R. Reisz. 1996. The osteology and relationships of Tetraceratops insignis, the oldest known therapsid. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:95-102.

Li, J. L., B. S. Rubidge, and Z. W. Cheng. 1996. A primitive anteosaurid dinocephalian from China - Implications for the distribution of earliest therapsid faunas. South African Journal of Science 92:252-253.

Martinez, R. N., C. L. May, and C. A. Forster. 1996. A new carnivorous cynodont from the Ischigualasto formation (late Triassic, Argentina), with comments on eucynodont phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:271-284.

Modesto, S., B. Rubidge, and J. Welman. 1999. The most basal anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in the evolution of the anomodonts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 266:331-337.

Novacek, M. J. 1992. Wandering across time. Nature 358:192.

Olson, E. C. 1986. Relationships and ecology of the early therapsids and their predecessors. Pages 47-60 in The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles (P. D. M. Nicholas Hotton III, J. J. Roth, and E. C. Roth, eds.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Rubidge, B. S. and J. A. Hopson. 1996. A primitive anomodont therapsid from the base of the Beaufort Group (Upper Permian) of South Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 117:115-139.

Rubidge, B. S. and J. A.VandenHeever. 1997. Morphology and systematic position of the dinocephalian Styracocephalus platyrhynchus. Lethaia 30:157-168.

Sidor, C. A. and J. A. Hopson. 1998. Ghost lineages and "mammalness": assessing the temporal pattern of character acquisition in the Synapsida. Paleobiology 24:254-273.

Sigogneau-Russel, D. 1989. Theriodontia I. Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology Part 17B/I. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart.

Sues, H. D. 1986. Locomotion and body form in early therapsids (Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia, and Therocephalia). Pages 61-70 in The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles (P. D. M. Nicholas Hotton III, J. J. Roth, and E. C. Roth, eds.) Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Sues, H. D. 1992. No paleocene mammal-like reptile. Nature 359:278-278.

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Tree of Life Web Project. 1995. Therapsida. Mammals and extinct relatives. Version 01 January 1995 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Therapsida/14973/1995.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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